High testosterone in females treatment

high testosterone in females treatment

High testosterone in females treatment

“Testosterone isn’t always on the top of our list when it comes to hormone balance, especially for women, but it’s an incredibly important hormone and one that helps us to feel energetic, motivated and strong.”

“While addressing your unique causes to elevated testosterone is the goal, there are some common action steps that will support women with elevated testosterone.”

How To Balance Testosterone In Women – Part 1: Elevated Testosterone

Testosterone isn’t always on the top of our list when it comes to hormone balance, especially for women, but it’s an incredibly important hormone and one that helps us to feel energetic, motivated, sexy and strong.

In my recent hormone series on the blog, I’ve discussed cortisol, progesterone, estrogen dominance and plant-based approaches for estrogen detox. With all of these hormones, either low levels or high levels lead to symptoms and imbalances. The same is true with testosterone in women; we want to take a goldilocks approach, not too much or too little testosterone, but just right.

That’s exactly what we are going to dive into in this two part series: understanding both high testosterone in women and low testosterone along with action steps to address both cases.

Today in Part 1, we are going to cover high testosterone. Keep reading to learn more about:

  • Elevated testosterone and the PCOS connection
  • Signs and symptoms of high testosterone in women
  • Action steps to lower testosterone

Elevated Testosterone In Women With PCOS

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, or PCOS, is the most common cause of elevated testosterone that I see in my practice. (Click here to learn more about what is PCOS and PCOS diagnosis. And click here for PCOS treatment approaches.)

Hormones don’t operate alone and very directly influence one another. Insulin-resistance is common in PCOS; 50 to 60 percent of PCOS patients also have metabolic syndrome. Insulin is the hormone that moves sugar from the blood into your cells and when blood sugar and insulin are high, over time, the cells have a hard time hearing insulin’s signal.

When insulin is high, ovulation is inhibited which leads to the irregular cycles common with PCOS. High insulin often causes high estrogen in relationship to progesterone (remember you need ovulation to make progesterone). High insulin also signals to the ovaries and adrenal glands to make more testosterone. With insulin, estrogen and testosterone high, both weight and fertility are impacted. And since fat cells can also make testosterone, it can be hard to break the cycle.

It’s important to note that not all women with PCOS have high testosterone and it’s also possible to have high testosterone without PCOS, which happens frequently when coming off of hormonal birth control. Causes of elevated testosterone levels in women vary from person to person. This is why it’s so important to work with your practitioner and have hormone testing done so you can address your own, personal root causes.

Signs And Symptoms Of High Testosterone In Women

The following signs and symptoms might be clues to elevated testosterone levels when compared to normal testosterone levels in women.

  • Male pattern hair growth on chin, upper lip and/or chest
  • Hair loss on head
  • Mood swings
  • Acne and oily skin
  • Irregular or absent menstrual cycles
  • Changes in body weight or shape
  • Increased muscle mass
  • Infertility
  • Mood swings

If this pattern sounds like you, some testing will help confirm your suspicion and distinguish high testosterone from other hormone imbalances.

How To Lower Testosterone In Women

While addressing your unique causes to elevated testosterone is the goal, there are some common action steps that will support women with elevated testosterone.

  • Balance blood sugar. By using food and other lifestyle tools to balance blood sugar, you will also heal the metabolic pattern of elevated insulin and insulin resistance that contributes to elevated testosterone, inflammation and hormone imbalance. This might require dramatically reducing or fully eliminating processed sugar and refined carbs from the diet. Instead, focus on real, whole foods you cook at home such as vegetables, low-glycemic fruits, high quality protein and healthy fats. Eating regularly and certain supplements such as chromium, fiber and myo-inositol are helpful.
  • Drink green tea. Green tea has been shown to increase sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), which can bind up excess testosterone in the body. EGCG found in green tea is also an incredible antioxidant and shows anti-cancer properties.
  • Considertaking herbs. White peony,licorice, nettles, spearmint tea, reishi mushroom and others all have research to support testosterone – lowering effects and are commonly used in both PCOS and other cases of elevated testosterone in women. Be sure to check with your provider (or make an appointment with me) to discuss the specific herbs, forms and dosages that are right for your unique situation.
  • Increase your zinc. Zinc-deficiency is common and zinc is a mineral important for suppressing androgens including testosterone, while also supporting ovarian function. Zinc-rich foods include pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, chickpeas, lentils, cacao, mushrooms and avocado. If you include animal foods in your diet, grass-fed beef and oysters are very high in zinc. Consider zinc your PCOS testosterone blocker!

My hope is that this gives you some information and action steps for exploring your own hormones and what to look out for as far as testosterone. In part 2 of my testosterone series, I will cover low testosterone. Stay tuned!

  1. Karakas S. E. (2017). New biomarkers for diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 471, 248–253. Abstract: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28624501/
  2. Nagata, C., Kabuto, M., & Shimizu, H. (1998). Association of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intakes with serum concentrations of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal Japanese women. Nutrition and cancer, 30(1), 21–24. Abstract: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9507508/
  3. Dhariwala, M. Y., & Ravikumar, P. (2019). An overview of herbal alternatives in androgenetic alopecia. Journal of cosmetic dermatology, 18(4), 966–975. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30980598/
  4. Briden, L. (2017). Period Repair Manual. 2nd Edition.

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Too much testosterone in men

too much testosterone in men

Signs of high testosterone in men

If you have any medical questions or concerns, please talk to your healthcare provider. The articles on Health Guide are underpinned by peer-reviewed research and information drawn from medical societies and governmental agencies. However, they are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

More is not necessarily better when it comes to testosterone. Healthy testosterone levels positively affect muscle size, sex drive, and more. But past a certain point, consistently high testosterone can cause problems. Signs of high testosterone in men include acne, hair loss, mood swings, and trouble sleeping.

Read on to learn about the signs of high testosterone in men.

Created by doctors, backed by science.

Created by doctors, backed by science.

What is testosterone?

Testosterone is a male sex hormone (also called an androgen) that both men and women have.

In men, testosterone production occurs mainly in the testicles and helps your body build and maintain muscle mass, maintain a healthy libido, and stabilize your energy levels (Nassar, 2022).

Even before adulthood, people need testosterone to grow and mature. Low testosterone can delay puberty or hinder normal development in men (Nassar, 2022).

Testosterone is essential for overall health and wellness. It may help increase insulin sensitivity and, thanks to its ability to decrease fat mass, may prevent the progression from prediabetes to diabetes. Testosterone also helps the body build lean muscle (Dandona, 2020).

Normal testosterone levels in men

There are two types of testosterone: free testosterone and protein-bound testosterone. Together, these make up your total testosterone. A “normal” reading of total testosterone levels falls anywhere between 300 and 1000 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL), depending on what lab processes your sample or who you ask. When it comes to defining “abnormal” testosterone levels, meaning levels that are too low or too high, it’s important to remember that the cutoffs for testosterone are not as well-defined as other blood values, like hemoglobin levels.

For example, according to the American Urological Association (AUA), having a value below 300 ng/dL is a “reasonable cut-off” to be diagnosed with low testosterone, which can trigger treatment (Mulhall, 2018). But healthcare providers might still treat someone with slightly higher T levels if the signs and symptoms are typical of low T.

Low testosterone (hypogonadism)—which may be caused by aging, trauma, genetic conditions like Klinefelter syndrome, and more—may cause low libido, low sperm count and infertility, erectile dysfunction, weight gain, or a loss of pubic or armpit hair (Sizar, 2021).

Similarly, testosterone that’s higher than “normal” has its own set of causes and symptoms. Let’s take a look at what causes testosterone levels to spike.

What are normal testosterone levels in men?

What causes high testosterone in men?

High levels of testosterone don’t usually happen naturally. Men with too much testosterone may have high levels due to (Nassar, 2022; Ganesan, 2021):

Signs of high testosterone in men

While higher-than-normal testosterone levels are not very common in men, if your levels do spike and stay high for a while, you may experience signs of high testosterone like acne, hair loss, mood swings, and trouble sleeping.

Acne

Testosterone can increase sebum production (an oily substance found on the skin), which may lead to clogged pores and acne. As such, men with high testosterone may experience more acne than those with normal levels (Sutaria, 2022).

Hair loss

Some people with high testosterone experience androgenetic alopecia or male pattern hair loss (also called male pattern baldness) (Filatova, 2021).

In people with a genetic predisposition to male pattern baldness, high testosterone may also cause hair loss (Kische, 2017).

Mood swings

Elevated testosterone levels may contribute to mood disorders like irritability and aggressiveness. They may also make you more prone to take risks, especially if the cause of your high T is anabolic steroid abuse (Johnson, 2013).

Does testosterone increase sex drive? The relationship explained

Sleep problems

High testosterone may cause restlessness and difficulty falling or staying asleep. Researchers aren’t sure how testosterone affects sleep, but they believe it may affect your circadian rhythm. Some providers even use testosterone therapy as a treatment for sleep apnea, but the results are inconclusive (Wittert, 2014).

How to treat high testosterone in men

High testosterone is treated differently depending on the cause. If you experience signs of high testosterone, your healthcare provider may run a simple blood test to measure your testosterone levels. An appropriate treatment plan will depend on the cause of your high T.

Here are some ways to treat high testosterone:

Adjust testosterone replacement therapy (TRT)

If you receive testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for low testosterone levels and your hormone levels get too high, your healthcare provider will work with you to adjust your dosage and get your blood levels within a normal range.

Decrease or stop anabolic steroids

If you use anabolic steroids for muscle gains and your T levels spike, you might experience signs of high testosterone. If you’re using anabolic steroids illegally and without the supervision of your healthcare provider, it’s a good idea to let your healthcare provider know since they come with risks and potential side effects. Long-term health problems include severe medical conditions like heart disease, kidney problems, liver disease, and blood clots, potentially leading to heart attacks and strokes (AlShareef, 2022).

10 signs and symptoms of low testosterone

Treat underlying conditions

If a testicular tumor is producing testosterone or otherwise affecting your hormone levels, treating it may bring your testosterone levels back into the normal range.

If you experience any signs of high testosterone, visit your healthcare provider. They can work with you to determine why your testosterone levels are high and make a treatment plan to bring them back to the normal range.

References

  1. AlShareef, S., Gokarakonda, S. B., & Marwaha, R. (2022). Anabolic steroid use disorder. StatPearls. Retrieved on Jun. 14, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538174/
  2. Dandona, P., Dhindsa, S., Ghanim, H., et al. (2020). Mechanisms underlying the metabolic actions of testosterone in humans: A narrative review. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 23(1), 18–28. doi:10.1111/dom.14206. Retrieved from https://dom-pubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/dom.14206
  3. Filatova, V. A. & Rozhivanov, R. V. (2021). Features of hyperandrogenism in men. Problems of Endocrinology, 67(2), 111–115. doi:10.14341/probl12732. Retrieved from https://www.probl-endojournals.ru/jour/article/view/12732?locale=en_US
  4. Ganesan, K., Rahman, S., & Zito, P. (2021). Anabolic steroids. StatPearls. Retrieved on Jun. 14, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482418/
  5. Johnson, J., Nachtigall, L., & Stern, T. (2013). The effect of testosterone levels on mood in men: a review. Psychosomatics, 54(6), 509–514. doi:10.1016/j.psym.2013.06.018. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033318213001333?via%3Dihub#bib20
  6. ​​Kische, H., Arnold, A., Gross, S., et al. (2017). Sex hormones and hair loss in men from the general population of northeastern Germany. JAMA Dermatology, 153(9), 935–937. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.0297. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817427/
  7. Mulhall, J. P., Trost, L. W., & Brannigan, R. E., et al. (2018). Evaluation and management of testosterone deficiency: AUA Guideline. Journal of Urology, 200, 423. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2018.03.115. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29601923/
  8. Nassar, G. N. & Leslie, S. W. (2022). Physiology, testosterone. StatPearls. Retrieved on Jun. 14, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526128/
  9. Sizar, O. & Schwartz, J. (2021). Hypogonadism. StatPearls. Retrieved on Jun. 14, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532933/
  10. Sutaria, A. H., Masood, S., & Schlessinger, J. (2022). Acne Vulgaris. StatPearls. Retrieved on Jun. 14, 2022 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459173/
  11. Wittert, G. (2014). The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity, 21(3), 239–243. doi:10.1097/MED.0000000000000069. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24739309/

Felix Gussone is a physician, health journalist and a Manager, Medical Content & Education at Ro.

Low testosterone effects on brain

Testosterone and the brain

Gender differences in spatial recognition, and age-related declines in cognition and mood, point towards testosterone as an important modulator of cerebral functions. Testosterone appears to activate a distributed cortical network, the ventral processing stream, during spatial cognition tasks, and addition of testosterone improves spatial cognition in younger and older hypogonadal men. In addition, reduced testosterone is associated with depressive disorders. The relationship between depression and testosterone appears to partly depend upon the androgen receptor genotype of the patient, and in appropriate patients with low testosterone levels, testosterone substitution can increase positive mood and decrease negative mood. The much publicized link between testosterone and aggression is probably only of importance in athletes who supplement their testosterone levels to excessively high levels, whereas in hypogonadal men, testosterone supplementation only enhances the positive aspects of aggression such as vigour and energy. Current data suggest that testosterone supplementation in hypogonadal men of all ages will enhance many aspects of mood and cognition.

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Kumano H. Kumano H. Clin Calcium. 2007 Sep;17(9):1378-83. Clin Calcium. 2007. PMID: 17767027 Review. Japanese.

Morley JE. Morley JE. J Gend Specif Med. 2001;4(2):49-53. J Gend Specif Med. 2001. PMID: 11480098 Review.

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Free testosterone levels

free testosterone levels

What’s the difference between total and free testosterone?

Which is the better measure of your T levels — total or free?

Author: Dr Joshua Smith – Research Scientist, MBBS, BMedSci, PGCertMedEd

Reviewed by: Dr Sam Rodgers – Chief Medical Officer, MBBS, MRCGP

Testosterone is a vital hormone for both men and women. But if you’ve ever taken a testosterone blood test before, you’ve probably noticed there are two different types: total and free. Both can be helpful to establish whether your testosterone levels are low, but what’s the difference?

If you want a quick answer of which test is right for you, jump to should I test free or total testosterone?

What is testosterone?

First, let’s recap testosterone’s overall function in the body.

Testosterone is a primary sex hormone primarily made in the testes, but also in the ovaries and adrenal glands. It’s important for growth and development, fertility, and maintaining muscle and bone mass. Low levels can affect mood, energy levels, and sexual function.

The effects of testosterone are more clearly seen in men, but the hormone has important roles in women too. Abnormal levels, low or high, can give rise to symptoms and may be due to an underlying condition.

Testosterone in the bloodstream

Once testosterone is made, it’s released into the bloodstream. But because it doesn’t dissolve in water (or blood), most testosterone (about 95%) catches a ride on other proteins, like sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin. Remember these — they’ll be important later.

All the time testosterone is bound to proteins, it’s rendered inactive. It can’t act on tissues until it’s released. There are two benefits to this:

Once it reaches its target cell, testosterone binds to specific receptors and triggers changes within the cell.

Free vs total testosterone

As we’ve seen, carrier proteins bind to and release testosterone within the bloodstream.

Total testosterone is a total measure of testosterone in the bloodstream—both free and bound. Levels are measured by an analyser directly.

On the other hand, free testosterone is the concentration of testosterone in the blood that is not attached to proteins. Only about 2–5% of testosterone is free.

How is free testosterone calculated?

Measuring free testosterone directly is possible, but it’s challenging and not widely available. So it’s often calculated instead, using total testosterone, SHBG, and albumin levels. It’s a complicated equation that produces a very reliable estimate. Thankfully, the lab works this out for you.

Free testosterone in women

In women, levels of testosterone are around ten times lower than men, and the majority is bound to the protein, SHBG (about 80%). As such, free androgen index (FAI) is a better measure than free testosterone. It’s the ratio of total testosterone to SHBG and is useful for detecting raised androgens (male hormones), as is seen in conditions like polycycstic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Total testosterone refers to all forms of testosterone in the bloodstream. Free testosterone is any testosterone that is not bound to a protein. Free androgen index is a measure of free testosterone in women.

What is bioavailable testosterone?

Bioavailable testosterone reflects testosterone that is readily available and able to act to tissues. It makes sense that free testosterone falls into this category, since it can bind to cell receptors as it pleases.

But testosterone bound to albumin is also classed as bioavailable. That’s because the testosterone-albumin bond is easily reversible, meaning testosterone frequently switches between active and inactive forms. This effect is greatest in men as a greater proportion of their testosterone binds to albumin.

The remaining testosterone is bound to SHBG and this bond is more secure. This means that high levels of SHBG can reduce levels of free and bioavailable testosterone.

Bioavailable testosterone is a measure of testosterone that is readily available to act on tissues. It is calculated by adding free testosterone to albumin-bound testosterone.

What is a normal free testosterone level?

Normal free testosterone levels for men and women vary according to the laboratory. The table below is given as a guide.

Testosterone levels vary according to life stage. Find out more about how testosterone levels decline with age.

Can you have normal total testosterone and low free testosterone?

Yes, it’s possible to have normal total testosterone levels but low free testosterone, which may lead to symptoms of testosterone deficiency.

As we’ve seen, it’s the bioavailable portion of testosterone that exerts its effects on the body. So, if SHBG levels are particularly raised relative to total testosterone, it won’t leave much free testosterone to act on tissues. This can be seen in older age, where SHBG levels often increase considerably [1].

Other causes of raised SHBG levels include [2]:

  • Medications such as oestrogens, anti-epilepsy drugs, and metformin
  • Conditions such as liver disease, an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), and HIV

Can you have low total testosterone but normal free testosterone levels?

The opposite is also true: total testosterone levels may appear low when free testosterone levels are within normal range. This is most often seen in men in the development of insulin resistance (obesity or diabetes), which often causes SHBG levels to decline. Therefore, less testosterone is bound to proteins [1]. You can check your blood sugar control from home with our Diabetes (HbA1c) Blood Test.

How can I increase free testosterone levels?

Free testosterone levels are dependent on both total testosterone levels and your levels of SHBG (the protein that binds to it).

Therefore, increasing your total testosterone level through healthy lifestyle choices is also likely to increase your free testosterone levels. Factors like stress, low levels of activity, and being overweight can all impact your testosterone production. There are many ways you can boost testosterone levels naturally, from losing weight to maintaining a healthy, balanced diet.

SHBG naturally increases with age, but you may be able to reduce this effect somewhat by making sure your diet contains plenty of protein [9]. If your levels are abnormally high, it’s worth exploring whether medications or an underlying health condition may be playing a part in this.

Should I test free or total testosterone?

The answer to this question will depend on why you’re testing and your gender.

If you’re curious, or just want to make sure you’re not deficient, total testosterone will likely give you your answer. This is usually the first step in investigating symptoms of hypogonadism (low testosterone) and makes a great screening test.

If you have low or borderline total testosterone levels or you have ongoing symptoms, your doctor may advise further testing, which may include free testosterone, SHBG, LH (to distinguish between different types of hypogonadism), or FH (if fertility is an issue) [3]. You can check your free testosterone levels at home with our finger-prick Free Testosterone Blood Test, or if you’d also like to test for the other hormones mentioned, try our Male Hormone Blood Test.

There is some evidence that free testosterone may be more useful when investigating hypogonadism [1] for reasons mentioned above — total testosterone may be normal even when free testosterone is low.

When investigating causes of hyperandrogenism in women, such as PCOS, total testosterone, SHBG, and free androgen index are most useful. Other hormones like luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin are sometimes also measured to rule out other causes of irregular periods.

Some women suspect their testosterone levels are low because they have low libido, but the two do not always correlate. It’s likely that the metabolism of testosterone, rather than absolute levels, is a more important determinant of libido, which can’t be measured [4].

Where testosterone replacement is being considered, a total testosterone level and FAI measurement are useful to make sure testosterone levels are not already at the upper normal limit.

Trans and non-binary people on hormone therapy

If you’re looking to monitor your hormone regime, the Endocrine Society recommends testing total testosterone levels, alongside other hormones such as oestradiol and prolactin in trans women. Guidelines suggest monitoring hormone therapy every three months during the first year (that is, with each dose adjustment), then once or twice a year once the dose is stabilised [5–7]. That said, free or bioavailable testosterone measurements may be valuable if total testosterone levels don’t seem to align with the stage of transition [8], which may be due to raised SHBG levels.

When taking hormone medication, it’s important to make sure you’re taking your blood test at the right time. Gender GP provides a helpful guide of blood test timings. And if you use hormone gels and are taking a finger-prick test, you should make sure your finger is completely clear of any hormone gel to avoid an abnormally high result, or ideally take a venous test.

The bottom line

Testosterone is more complicated that it seems at first glance. To summarise, total testosterone is a helpful biomarker to measure if you’re experiencing symptoms of low or raised levels. This can be combined with free testosterone or a free androgen index for a better idea of bioavailable testosterone levels.

References

  1. Antonio L, Wu FCW, O’Neill TW, Pye SR, Ahern TB, Laurent MR, et al. Low Free Testosterone Is Associated with Hypogonadal Signs and Symptoms in Men with Normal Total Testosterone. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2016 Jul 1;101(7):2647–57.
  2. Bhasin S, Brito JP, Cunningham GR, Hayes FJ, Hodis HN, Matsumoto AM, et al. Testosterone Therapy in Men With Hypogonadism: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 May 1;103(5):1715–44.
  3. Hackett G, Kirby M, Edwards D, Jones TH, Wylie K, Ossei-Gerning N, et al. British Society for Sexual Medicine Guidelines on Adult Testosterone Deficiency, With Statements for UK Practice. J Sex Med. 2017 Dec;14(12):1504–23.
  4. Mariette-JB. Testosterone replacement in menopause [Internet]. British Menopause Society. 2019 [cited 2023 Feb 1]. Available from: https://thebms.org.uk/2019/02/testosterone-replacement-in-menopause/
  5. Unger CA. Hormone therapy for transgender patients. Transl Androl Urol. 2016 Dec;5(6):877–84.
  6. Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Gooren L, Hannema SE, Meyer WJ, Murad MH, et al. Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society* Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2017 Nov 1;102(11):3869–903.
  7. Blood Test Orders [Internet]. GenderGP Transgender Services. [cited 2023 Feb 1]. Available from: https://www.gendergp.com/help-centre/blood-test-orders/
  8. Maheshwari A, Nippoldt T, Davidge-Pitts C. An Approach to Nonsuppressed Testosterone in Transgender Women Receiving Gender-Affirming Feminizing Hormonal Therapy. J Endocr Soc. 2021 Apr 16;5(9):bvab068.
  9. Longcope C, Feldman HA, McKinlay JB, Araujo AB. Diet and sex hormone-binding globulin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;85(1):293–6.

How much does testopel cost?

how much does testopel cost?

Testopel

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Is it legal to buy testosterone?

is it legal to buy testosterone?

Anabolic steroid misuse

If used in this way, they can cause serious side effects and addiction.

Anabolic steroids are manufactured drugs that copy the effects of the male hormone testosterone. They have limited medical uses and are not the same as corticosteroids, a different type of steroid drug that’s more commonly prescribed.

Are anabolic steroids illegal?

Anabolic steroids are class C drugs, which can only be issued by pharmacists with a prescription.

It’s legal to have anabolic steroids for personal use. They can also be imported or exported, as long as this is carried out in person. This means they can’t be posted or delivered by a courier or freight service.

However, it’s illegal to possess, import or export anabolic steroids if it’s believed you’re supplying or selling them. This includes giving them to friends. The penalty is an unlimited fine, or even a prison sentence of up to 14 years.

In professional sport, most organisations ban anabolic steroid use and test competitors for banned steroids. If you do test positive, you may be banned from competing professionally.

Why people misuse anabolic steroids

Anabolic steroids can be used as performance-enhancing drugs that increase muscle mass and decrease fat, as well as causing many undesirable effects. Some people take them regularly to improve their physical performance and build up their bodies.

However, people of all ages have been known to misuse these drugs, including adolescent boys who suffer from body dysmorphic disorder. This is a mental health condition where a person spends a lot of time worrying about flaws in their appearance. These flaws are often unnoticeable to others.

People who have body dysmorphic disorder may take anabolic steroids because they don’t see themselves as being physically big enough or strong enough.

Some people believe taking anabolic steroids will help them become fit and healthy. This isn’t true: taking anabolic steroids is a dangerous drug habit.

How anabolic steroids are taken

Anabolic steroids are usually injected into a muscle or taken by mouth as tablets, but they also come as creams or gels that are applied to the skin.

Many people who use anabolic steroids are aware of the dangers of taking them, and believe that by taking the drugs in certain ways they can avoid side effects. Or they may take additional medicines to try to counter the side effects.

  • Take the drugs for a period of time and then stop for a rest period before starting again. This is known as “cycling”.
  • Take more than one type of anabolic steroid at a time, known as “stacking”, which they believe makes the steroids work better.
  • Do a combination of both stacking and cycling, known as “pyramiding”, where they start off taking a low dose of one or more anabolic steroids, and then increase the dose over time up to a maximum dose. They then stop taking them for a rest period to give the body a break before starting the cycle again.

But there is no evidence that any of these methods actually reduce side effects and harms from taking anabolic steroids.

Users tend to exercise more when they’re taking high doses to make the most of their improved performance during this time.

Side effects of anabolic steroids

Regularly taking anabolic steroids can lead to physical and psychological changes in both men and women, as well as potentially dangerous medical conditions.

Physical effects

Effects of anabolic steroids in men can include:

  • reduced sperm count
  • infertility
  • shrunken testicles
  • erectile dysfunction
  • hair loss
  • breast development
  • increased risk of prostate cancer
  • severe acne
  • stomach pain
  • facial hair growth and body hair
  • loss of breasts
  • swelling of the clitoris
  • a deepened voice
  • an increased sex drive
  • problems with periods
  • hair loss
  • severe acne

In addition, both men and women who take anabolic steroids can develop any of the following medical conditions:

Psychological effects

Misusing anabolic steroids can also cause the following psychological or emotional effects:

Stunted growth in adolescents

Anabolic steroids accelerate bone growth, so if they’re misused by adolescents who haven’t yet had the growth spurt associated with puberty, the drugs can cause premature ageing of the bones and restricted growth.

Sharing needles

As anabolic steroids are often injected, there are risks associated with sharing needles. These are the same risks associated with recreational drug use, and include:

Addiction

Anabolic steroids are addictive. This means you can crave the drug, require more to get the same effect, and have withdrawal symptoms if you suddenly stop taking it.

A person who is addicted to anabolic steroids will want to keep using them despite experiencing unpleasant physical side effects.

When doctors prescribe steroid medication, they always advise coming off the medication slowly by gradually reducing the dose.

Coming off anabolic steroids suddenly can result in withdrawal symptoms that include:

  • depression and apathy
  • feelings of anxiety
  • difficulty concentrating
  • insomnia
  • anorexia
  • decreased sex drive
  • extreme tiredness (fatigue)
  • headaches
  • muscle and joint pain

Getting help

You should see a GP if you think you’re addicted to anabolic steroids. Treatment for an addiction to anabolic steroids will be similar to that of other types of addiction.

The GP may refer you to a specially trained drugs counsellor. They’ll discuss your addiction with you, how to safely stop taking steroids, and any obstacles you may face when trying to stop, plus tips for dealing with those obstacles.

Page last reviewed: 13 April 2022
Next review due: 13 April 2025

Cialis drug interactions

cialis drug interactions, cialis interactions

Cialis Interactions: Alcohol, Medications, and Others.
Cialis (tadalafil) is a prescription oral tablet that’s used for certain conditions, including erectile dysfunction. It can interact with other medications and some supplements. For example, Cialis can interact with the drugs amlodipine and Viagra.
Cialis is approved for adult males* to treat:
An interaction can occur because one substance causes another substance to have a different effect than expected. Interactions can also occur if you have certain health conditions.
Keep reading to learn about Cialis’s possible interactions. And for more information about Cialis, including details about its uses, see this article.
* In this article, we use the term “male” to refer to someone’s sex assigned at birth. For information about the difference between sex and gender, see this article.
Certain health conditions or other factors could raise your risk of harm if you take Cialis. In such cases, your doctor may not prescribe Cialis for you. These are known as contraindications. The list below includes contraindications of Cialis.
If you take a nitrate. If you take a nitrate drug, your doctor likely won’t prescribe Cialis. Nitrates are used to treat a type of chest pain called angina.
Taking Cialis with nitrates may cause very low blood pressure. And having very low blood pressure can lead to dizziness and fainting. In severe cases, very low blood pressure may lead to stroke or heart attack.
Below are examples of nitrates that can interact with Cialis:
Certain drugs called poppers are also nitrates. Amyl nitrate is an example of a popper. If you take poppers, your doctor likely won’t prescribe Cialis.
Before taking Cialis, tell your doctor if you’re already taking a nitrate drug. They can recommend treatments other than Cialis for your condition.
If you take a guanylate cyclase stimulator. If you take a guanylate cyclase (GC) stimulator, your doctor likely won’t prescribe Cialis. GC stimulators are used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. (This is a form of high blood pressure that occurs in the arteries of your lungs.)
Adempas (riociguat) and Verquvo (vericiguat) are examples of GC stimulators that can interact with Cialis.
Before taking Cialis, tell your doctor if you’re already taking a GC stimulator. They can recommend other treatments other than Cialis for your condition.
If you’ve had an allergic reaction. If you have had an allergic reaction to Cialis or any of its ingredients, your doctor likely won’t prescribe Cialis. This is because taking the drug could cause another allergic reaction. You can ask them about other treatments that may be better options for you.
Before you start taking Cialis, talk with your doctor if any of the factors above apply to you. Your doctor can determine whether Cialis is safe for you to take.
Your doctor will likely recommend limiting the amount of alcohol you drink, if any, during Cialis treatment. This is because both Cialis and alcohol can lower your blood pressure. So, drinking alcohol while taking Cialis could lower your blood pressure even further.
If you drink alcohol, talk with your doctor before starting Cialis treatment. They can tell you whether there’s an amount that’s safe to consume while taking Cialis.
Before you start taking Cialis, tell your doctor and pharmacist about any prescription, over-the-counter, or other drugs you take. Sharing this information with them may help prevent possible interactions.
If you have questions about drug interactions that may affect you, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
The chart below lists drugs that may interact with Cialis. Keep in mind that this chart does not include all drugs that may interact with Cialis. For more information about some of these interactions, see the “Drug interactions explained” section below.
Drug group or drug name Drug examples What can happen nitrates* • isosorbide mononitrate (Monoket) • isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil) • nitroglycerin (Nitro-Dur, NitroMist, Nitrostat) can increase the effect of nitrates guanylate cyclase (GC) stimulators* • riociguat (Adempas) • vericiguat (Verquvo) can increase the effect of GC stimulators alpha-blockers • tamsulosin (Flomax) • alfuzosin (Uroxatral) • terazosin can increase the effect of alpha-blockers blood pressure medications • calcium channel blockers, such as amlodipine (Norliqva, Norvasc) • beta-blockers, such as bisoprolol • angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, such as lisinopril (Zestril) • angiotensin receptor blockers, such as losartan (Cozaar) can increase the effect of blood pressure drugs PDE5 inhibitors • sildenafil (Viagra, Revatio) • vardenafil (Staxyn) • avanafil (Stendra) • other forms of tadalafil (Adcirca, Alyq) can increase the risk of side effects from Cialis certain antibiotics • rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) • clarithromycin • erythromycin (E.E.S., EryPed, Ery-Tab, others) some can increase the risk of side effects from Cialis, and others can make Cialis less effective certain antifungals • ketoconazole • itraconazole (Sporanox, Tolsura) • voriconazole (Vfend) can increase the risk of side effects from Cialis certain protease inhibitors • ritonavir (Norvir) • darunavir (Prezista) • atazanavir (Reyataz) can increase the risk of side effects from Cialis Certain seizure drugs • carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, Tegretol, others) • phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek) • phenobarbital can make Cialis less effective.
* To learn more about this interaction, see the “When should I avoid Cialis?” section above.
Learn more about certain drug interactions that can occur with Cialis.
Interaction with alpha-blockers.
Taking Cialis with alpha-blockers can increase the effect of alpha-blockers. These medications are used to treat high blood pressure and enlarged prostate.
What could happen.
Both Cialis and alpha-blockers can lower blood pressure. Taking these drugs together can lower your blood pressure too much.
What you can do.
Before taking Cialis, tell your doctor about any alpha-blockers you take. They’ll tell you whether it’s safe to take Cialis with these drugs. If you do take them together, your doctor may prescribe a lower dosage of Cialis than usual. (To learn more about the dosage of Cialis, see this article.)
Interaction with blood pressure medications.
Taking Cialis with blood pressure drugs, known as antihypertensives, can increase the effect of these medications.
Examples of blood pressure drugs include:
What could happen.
Both Cialis and blood pressure medications can lower your blood pressure too much. Taking these medications together can lead to very low blood pressure.
What you can do.
Before taking Cialis, tell your doctor about any blood pressure medications you take. They may monitor your blood pressure more closely than usual while you’re taking these drugs together.
Interaction with certain antibiotics.
Taking Cialis with certain antibiotics can raise your risk of side effects from Cialis. (Antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria.)
What could happen.
Certain antibiotics may keep the body from breaking down Cialis as it should. This can increase the amount of Cialis in your body. As a result, you may have a higher risk of side effects from Cialis. Or depending on the antibiotic you take, Cialis may be less effective.
What you can do.
Before you take Cialis, tell your doctor about any antibiotics you take. They’ll tell you whether it’s safe to take Cialis with these drugs. If they tell you it’s safe, they may monitor you closely for side effects from Cialis.
Cialis may have other interactions. They could occur with supplements, foods, vaccines, or even lab tests. See below for details. Note that the information below does not include all other possible interactions with Cialis.
Does Cialis interact with food?
Cialis may interact with grapefruit or grapefruit juice. Specifically, grapefruit or grapefruit may keep your body from breaking down Cialis as it should. This may increase the amount of Cialis in your body, which could raise your risk of side effects from the drug.
If you have questions about taking Cialis with certain foods or drinks, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
Does Cialis interact with supplements?
Before you start taking Cialis, talk with your doctor and pharmacist about any supplements, herbs, and vitamins you take. Sharing this information with them may help you avoid possible interactions.
If you have questions about interactions that may affect you, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
Cialis interactions with herbs.
Cialis may interact with an herb called St. John’s wort. (Some people take St. John’s wort to treat depression and various other conditions.)
St. John’s wort may cause your body to break down Cialis faster than it should. This may decrease the amount of Cialis in your body. And a low level of the drug in your body may make Cialis less effective for treating your condition.
If you take St. John’s wort, be sure to tell your doctor before starting Cialis treatment. They may recommend alternatives to St. John’s wort or Cialis.
Cialis and vitamins.
There are currently no reports of Cialis interacting with vitamins. But this doesn’t mean that vitamin interactions won’t be recognized in the future.
For this reason, it’s still important to check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any of these products while taking Cialis.
Does Cialis interact with vaccines?
There are currently no reports of Cialis interacting with vaccines. If you have questions about getting certain vaccines while taking Cialis, talk with your doctor.
Does Cialis interact with lab tests?
There are currently no reports of Cialis interacting with lab tests. If you have questions about getting specific lab tests while taking Cialis, talk with your doctor.
Does Cialis interact with cannabis or CBD? Cannabis (commonly called marijuana) and cannabis products, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have been specifically reported to interact with Cialis. Using cannabis and cannabis products with Cialis can lead to various effects. For some people, using these products together can increase the risk of side effects with Cialis. For others, using cannabis and cannabis products with Cialis can make Cialis less effective than usual. Before you start treatment with Cialis, tell your doctor and pharmacist if you use cannabis. By sharing this information with them, you may help prevent possible interactions. Note: Cannabis is illegal at a federal level but is legal in many states to varying degrees.
Certain medical conditions or other health factors may raise the risk of interactions with Cialis. Before taking Cialis, talk with your doctor about your health history. They’ll determine whether Cialis is right for you.
Health conditions or other factors that might interact with Cialis include:
Kidney or liver problems. If you have a kidney or liver problem, tell your doctor before starting treatment with Cialis. Examples of these problems include kidney failure and liver failure. If you have one of these conditions, your doctor may prescribe a lower dosage of Cialis than usual. (To learn more about the dosage of Cialis, see this article.)
Bleeding problems. If you have a bleeding problem, such as hemophilia, tell your doctor before taking Cialis. Your doctor can tell you whether Cialis is safe to take with your condition.
Eye problems. In rare cases, Cialis can cause serious eye problems, including vision loss. Your risk of eye problems with Cialis may be higher if you already have an eye problem before taking the drug. If you have a problem with your optic nerve or retina, tell your doctor before taking Cialis. They can determine whether it’s safe to take Cialis.
Misshaped penis. If you have a condition that affects the shape of your penis, such as Peyronie’s disease, tell your doctor before taking Cialis. Such conditions can increase your risk of priapism from Cialis. Your doctor can tell you whether it’s safe to take Cialis with your condition.
Peptic ulcers. If you have a peptic ulcer, tell your doctor before taking Cialis. This condition may raise your risk of bleeding with the drug. Your doctor can determine whether it’s safe to take Cialis with your condition.
Blood cell problems or blood cancers. If you have a blood cell problem, such as sickle cell anemia, tell your doctor before taking Cialis. Also, tell them if you have a blood cancer, such as leukemia or multiple myeloma. These conditions could raise your risk of priapism from Cialis. Your doctor can tell you whether Cialis is a safe treatment option for you.
Stroke or heart problems. Doctors typically will not prescribe Cialis if you have had a stroke or have certain heart problems. Examples of heart problems include having a heart attack in the past 90 days or having heart failure in the past 6 months.
Also, taking Cialis is not recommended if you have any of the following conditions:
It is unknown whether Cialis is safe for people who have any of these conditions. If you have any conditions mentioned above, your doctor will likely prescribe a treatment other than Cialis.
Pregnancy. It is unknown whether Cialis is safe to use during pregnancy. The drug is only prescribed for use in males.* For more information about Cialis and pregnancy, talk with your doctor. Breastfeeding. It is unknown if Cialis is safe to use while breastfeeding. The drug is only used in males.* For more information about Cialis and breastfeeding, talk with your doctor. Allergic reaction. If you’ve had an allergic reaction to Cialis or any of its ingredients, your doctor will likely not prescribe Cialis. This is because taking the drug could cause another allergic reaction. You can ask them about other treatments that may be better choices for you.
* In this article, we use the term “male” to refer to someone’s sex assigned at birth. For information about the difference between sex and gender, see this article.
Find answers to some frequently asked questions about Cialis and possible interactions.
Should I avoid coffee or other sources of caffeine while taking Cialis?
Not necessarily. Coffee and other sources of caffeine are not known to interact with Cialis. It should be safe to consume coffee and caffeine while taking this drug.
According to one study , consuming caffeine may lower the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). (Cialis is used to treat ED.) But whether coffee or caffeine is effective for treating or preventing ED is unknown. More research in this area is needed.
To learn more about taking Cialis with coffee or caffeine, talk with your doctor.
Can I take Cialis with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen?
Yes, you can take Cialis with NSAIDs. There isn’t a known interaction between these medications.
NSAIDs are typically used to reduce swelling or ease pain. Examples of NSAIDs include:
If you’re interested in treatment options to reduce swelling or ease pain while taking Cialis, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
Does Cialis interact with finasteride?
No, Cialis isn’t known to interact with finasteride (Proscar, Propecia). Finasteride is a drug used to treat enlarged prostate and balding.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), which Cialis is used to treat, is a possible side effect of finasteride. If you have ED with finasteride, your doctor may prescribe a drug to treat it. This could include Cialis. Talk with your doctor to learn more.
Is it safe to take Cialis with Xanax?
Yes, it should be safe to take Cialis with Xanax (alprazolam). There isn’t a known interaction between these medications.
Xanax may cause certain sexual side effects, including changes in your sex drive. And erectile dysfunction (ED) may result from a low sex drive. So, it’s possible that taking Xanax could lead to ED. If you have ED with Xanax, your doctor may prescribe Cialis to treat this condition.
To learn more about Cialis and Xanax, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
Taking certain steps can help you avoid interactions with Cialis. Before starting treatment, talk with your doctor and pharmacist. Things to discuss with them include:
Whether you drink alcohol or use cannabis. Other medications you take, as well as any vitamins, supplements, and herbs. Your doctor or pharmacist can help you fill out a medication list . What to do if you start taking a new drug during your Cialis treatment.
It’s also important to read Cialis’s label and other paperwork that may come with the drug. You may see colored stickers on the label that describe interactions. And the paperwork (sometimes called the patient package insert or medication guide) may have other details about interactions. (If you did not get paperwork with Cialis, ask your pharmacist to print a copy for you.) If you need help understanding this information, your doctor or pharmacist can help.
Taking Cialis exactly as prescribed can also help prevent interactions.
If you still have questions about Cialis and its possible interactions, talk with your doctor.
Questions you may want to ask your doctor include:
Do I have any health conditions or take any medications that could affect my Cialis dosage? Do other drugs that treat my condition have similar interactions? What should I do if I start a new medication while I’m taking Cialis?
To learn more about Cialis, see these articles:
To get information on different conditions and tips for improving your health, subscribe to any of Healthline’s newsletters. You may also want to check out the online communities at Bezzy. It’s a place where people with certain conditions can find support and connect with others.
Disclaimer: Healthline has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up to date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or another healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.
Last medically reviewed on July 16, 2023.

Testosterone meaning in urdu

testosterone meaning in urdu

Definitions

1 . a steroid hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics, produced mainly in the testes, but also in the ovaries and adrenal cortex.

Examples

2 . کیا آپ بہت زیادہ ٹیسٹوسٹیرون لے سکتے ہیں؟

4 . side effects( testosterone suppression).

5 . homebrew testosterone propionate recipe.

6 . دماغ میں واقع ہائپوتھیلمس پٹیوٹری غدود کو بتاتا ہے کہ جسم کو ٹیسٹوسٹیرون کی کتنی ضرورت ہے۔

6 . the hypothalamus, located in the brain, tells the pituitary gland how much testosterone the body needs.

7 . اینڈروجن ہارمونز کی تین اقسام ہیں ٹیسٹوسٹیرون، اینڈروسٹینیڈین، اور ڈائی ہائیڈروٹیسٹوسٹیرون، جنہیں عام طور پر ڈی ایچ ٹی کہا جاتا ہے۔

7 . the three types of androgen hormones are testosterone , androstenedione and dihydro testosterone , more commonly known as dht.

8 . مزید برآں، ایناجن luteinizing ہارمون اور follicle-stimulating ہارمونز کی بھی حوصلہ افزائی کرتا ہے جو آپ کے جسم میں ٹیسٹوسٹیرون کی قدرتی پیداوار کو بھی متحرک کرتے ہیں۔

8 . in addition, anagen also encourages luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormones which also kickstart your body’s natural production of testosterone .

9 . یہاں تک کہ زیادہ تر صارفین کی طرف سے تجربہ کیا جانے والا ہلکا درد بھی کافی تکلیف دہ ہو سکتا ہے، خاص طور پر جب ہر ہفتے متعدد ٹیسٹوسٹیرون پروپیونیٹ پی کے انجیکشن لگاتے ہیں۔

9 . even the mild soreness that is experienced by most users can be quite uncomfortable, especially when taking multiple pharmacokinetics of testosterone propionate injections each week.

15 . ٹیسٹوسٹیرون Cypionate کے ساتھ باڈی بلڈنگ۔

15 . testosterone cypionate bodybuilding.

16 . testosterone propionate powder video.

17 . ٹیسٹوسٹیرون Phenylpropionate کے نتائج۔

17 . testosterone phenylpropionate results.

18 . an increase in“free” testosterone and.

19 . fractional nutrition and testosterone .

20 . ٹیسٹوسٹیرون آئسوکاپرویٹ بلکنگ سائیکل۔

20 . bulking cycle testosterone isocaproate.

Enzyte fda

enzyte fda

FDA Warns Consumers to Avoid Certain Male Enhancement and Weight Loss Products Sold Through Amazon, eBay and Other Retailers Due to Hidden, Potentially Dangerous Drug Ingredients.
Agency Urges Online Marketplaces, Other Websites and Retailers to Stop Selling These Male Enhancement and Weight Loss Products to American Consumers.
The FDA continues to find potentially dangerous products available for purchase. On Dec. 8, 2021, the FDA warned consumers not to purchase or use nine potentially dangerous sexual enhancement products available for purchase from Walmart.com. The FDA will continue to alert the public when products and companies place consumers’ health at risk.
On July 26, 2021, the FDA issued an untitled letter to notify Amazon about its distribution of sexual enhancement and weight loss products in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The FDA continues to find potentially dangerous products available for purchase and urges stores, websites, and online marketplaces, including Amazon, to stop selling these potentially dangerous products.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is warning consumers not to use nearly 50 male enhancement or weight loss products that have been found to contain hidden ingredients and may pose a significant health risk. The FDA purchased these products on Amazon and eBay and agency testing found that the products contain active pharmaceutical ingredients not listed on their labels, including some with ingredients found in prescription drugs. These products may cause potentially serious side effects and may interact with medications or dietary supplements a consumer is taking.
Despite FDA consumer warnings about similar products over the past decade, the agency continues to find potentially dangerous products available for purchase on the internet, including from online marketplaces like Amazon and eBay, as well as in retail stores. The agency urges consumers to beware of purchasing or taking these products.
“Protecting the health and safety of Americans is the FDA’s highest priority, and we will remain vigilant and communicate about products and companies that place U.S. consumers at risk,” said Donald D. Ashley, J.D., director of the Office of Compliance in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “While the FDA has engaged in discussions with online marketplaces like Amazon and eBay regarding these issues in the past, we believe they can do more to protect consumers from these fraudulent and potentially dangerous products. We continue to urge stores, websites and online marketplaces, like Amazon and eBay, to take appropriate steps to protect the American public by not selling or facilitating the sale of illegal FDA-regulated products.”
All 26 of the products the FDA purchased on Amazon and 20 of 25 products, or 80 percent, purchased on eBay contained undeclared active pharmaceutical ingredients. The FDA’s laboratory testing found the products contained various undeclared active ingredients, including sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, sibutramine, desmethylsibutramine, phenolphthalein and/or fluoxetine. Many of these are active ingredients for use in FDA-approved prescription drugs, which are restricted to use under the supervision of a licensed health care professional.
Many of the products the agency purchased from Amazon and eBay have names that are the same as, or similar to, tainted products that have been the subject of previous FDA consumer warnings. Several of the Amazon products are designated as an “Amazon Choice” or “#1 Best Seller.” Products with undeclared drug ingredients violate federal law. In general, these products are unapproved new drugs and/or adulterated dietary supplements. In addition, they are misbranded because their labels do not accurately reflect their ingredients.
The FDA’s tainted products database can help consumers identify nearly 1,000 of these potentially dangerous products. However, the agency is unable to test and identify all products that have potentially harmful hidden ingredients. Even if a product is not included in the list, consumers should be cautious about using certain products, especially those promoted for sexual enhancement, weight loss, bodybuilding, sleep aids or pain relief. Consumers should also be on alert for products that offer immediate or quick results and that sound too good to be true. The FDA is committed to protecting consumers by identifying and removing these potentially dangerous products from the market.
Consumers using or considering using any over-the-counter product marketed for sexual enhancement, weight loss or bodybuilding, or any product marketed as a dietary supplement for pain relief, should talk to a health care professional first, as some ingredients may interact with medications or dietary supplements. Additionally, consumers should search for product information from sources other than sellers and ask a doctor for help distinguishing between reliable and questionable information.
The FDA encourages consumers and health care professionals to report any adverse events to the agency’s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program so the agency can take action to protect the public from any unsafe products. The FDA is also committed to protecting consumers from the risks of buying medicines online and helping them be more aware of how to buy online safely.
The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.
Related Information.

Does testosterone

Does testosterone have a role in erectile function?

Purpose: Despite the well-established role of testosterone in enhancing libido, its exact contribution to erections in men remains unclear. The main objectives of this review are to clarify the role of testosterone in erectile function and evaluate its therapeutic value in men with erectile dysfunction (ED).

Methods: Review of the relevant literature (English, French, and Spanish) from 1939 to June 2005 was conducted using data sources from MEDLINE, endocrinology text books, and hand searching of cross-references from original articles and reviews. Clinical trials, animal studies, case reports, reviews, and guidelines of major associations were included.

Results: Animal and preliminary human studies suggest that testosterone may facilitate erection by acting as vasodilator of the penile arterioles and cavernous sinusoids. Following castration, most, but not all, men had partial or complete loss of erection. Hypogonadism is not a common finding in ED, occurring in about 5% of cases, and in general, there is lack of association between serum testosterone levels, when present in normal or moderately low levels, and erectile function. Most trials using testosterone for treatment of ED in hypogonadal men suffer from methodological problems and report inconsistent results, but overall, suggest that testosterone may be superior to placebo. Erectile function is more likely to improve with testosterone therapy in patients with severe degrees of hypogonadism. Testosterone treatment may ameliorate the response to the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in hypogonadal men and men with low-normal serum testosterone. Repeated measurement of morning serum total testosterone is a fairly accurate and easy method to evaluate androgenecity, but measurement of free or bioavailable testosterone is recommended in conditions that alter the levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), such as in the elderly and in obesity.

Conclusions: Available data suggest that in most men circulating levels of testosterone, well below the normal range, are essential for normal erection and that higher levels of serum testosterone may not have major impact on erectile function. Screening for hypogonadism in all men with ED is necessary to identify cases of severe hypogonadism and some cases of mild to moderate hypogonadism, who may benefit from testosterone treatment.

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