Does vasectomy affect testosterone?

Early and late long-term effects of vasectomy on serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels

Purpose: We investigated whether the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer has a hormonal basis.

Materials and methods: We examined serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels by radioimmunoassay on 91 pairs of men who did and did not undergo vasectomy.

Results: Men who underwent vasectomy 10 to 19 years previously had higher dihydrotestosterone levels than age matched controls. In men who underwent vasectomy 20 years or more ago testosterone was higher than in corresponding controls. No statistically significant difference in luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels was noted between the men who had had vasectomy and controls.

Conclusions: Our results indirectly support the hypothesis that there is an elevated risk of prostate cancer among men who underwent vasectomy 20 or more years previously.

PIP: Researchers compared data on 91 men who had undergone vasectomy at least 10 years earlier with data on 91 healthy men matched for age, weight, height, and neighborhood who had not undergone vasectomy to examine whether the link between vasectomy and prostate cancer is based on changes in serum hormone levels. All the men lived in suburban Xiangtan in Hunan Province, China. Cases had a higher mean serum dihydrotestosterone level than controls (1.18 vs. 1.05 nmol/l; p 0.05). Yet men who had undergone vasectomy less than 20 years earlier not only had a higher dihydrotestosterone level than age-matched controls (1.46 vs. 1.22 nmol/l; p 0.01) but had a lower testosterone/dihydrotestosterone ratio (14.5 vs. 20.1; p 0.005). On the other hand, men who had undergone vasectomy more than 20 years earlier had a higher testosterone level than age-matched controls (27.2 vs. 23.9 nmol/l; p 0.05). Men who had undergone vasectomy when they were less than 35 years old had a higher FSH level and those who were 35-39 years old at vasectomy had a higher dihydrotestosterone level than age-matched controls (19.5 vs. 14.8 mIU/ml and 1.31 vs. 1.09 nmol/l) (p 0.05). Even though men who were at least 40 years old at vasectomy had a higher dihydrotestosterone level than matching controls (1.24 vs. 1.09 nmol/l), the difference was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that vasectomy may cause a reduction in testosterone levels by minimizing the conversion from testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in the long term. Thus, they support the hypothesis that a long-term effect of vasectomy may be an elevated risk of prostate cancer. More research is needed to confirm or refute this hypothesis.

Comment in

Kliesch S, Roth S, Hertle L. Kliesch S, et al. J Urol. 1996 Nov;156(5):1784-5. doi: 10.1016/s0022-5347(01)65531-9. J Urol. 1996. PMID: 8863615 No abstract available.

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Testosterone injections for men

testosterone injections for men

What to know about testosterone injections

Testosterone injections are hormone treatments. Injecting testosterone is primarily a treatment for sexual dysfunction in males and postmenopausal symptoms in females with a testosterone deficiency.

Transgender men and nonbinary people may also use testosterone injections as part of masculinizing therapy.

Testosterone injections are safe for many people, but they can have side effects. The side effects may be different depending on the reason why the person is using the injections.

Although testosterone injections can help for low testosterone due to medical conditions, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not recommend using testosterone to treat natural aging-related testosterone changes as it may increase the risk of certain health issues.

Keep reading for more information on testosterone injections, including their uses, safety, and potential side effects.

Share on Pinterest A doctor may recommend testosterone injections to treat sexual dysfunction in males.

Testosterone injections are injections of isolated testosterone. This hormone is present in both males and females, but the levels are naturally higher in males.

Testosterone therapy is becoming more common in the United States. Before recommending long-term testosterone therapy, doctors should make sure that the person understands and has weighed up the risks and benefits.

The following sections look at the uses of testosterone injections.

Treating low testosterone levels in males

Doctors may recommend testosterone injections to treat males with low testosterone levels. Low testosterone production by the testicles is called hypogonadism.

Low testosterone can have negative effects. The symptoms of low testosterone in males include a lower sperm count, a decrease in bone or muscle mass, increased body fat, and erectile dysfunction. Normal total testosterone levels in the bloodstream in healthy adult males are 280–1,100 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dl).

When treating hypogonadism, testosterone therapy can have the following benefits :

  • improved sexual function
  • increased lean muscle mass and strength
  • improved mood
  • better cognitive function
  • possible reduction in osteoporosis

It is important to note that this therapy treats the symptoms of low testosterone rather than the underlying cause.

Anyone who suspects that they may have low testosterone can see a doctor for a diagnosis. However, the symptoms are quite general and could be due to other conditions or lifestyle factors.

Not all males with low testosterone will need treatment, and it is not always safe. The FDA have approved testosterone replacement therapy only for males with low testosterone due to disorders of the testicles, brain, or pituitary gland and not for natural age-related declines.

Testosterone therapy in females

Testosterone therapy is more controversial in females than in males.

Normal total testosterone levels in healthy adult females are 15–70 ng/dl. Low testosterone in females can cause fertility problems, irregular periods, vaginal dryness, and a low sex drive. Despite this, doctors do not often recommend testosterone injections to treat low testosterone in females, as they can have masculinizing effects.

However, doctors may recommend testosterone therapy to help with hypoactive sexual desire disorder in females after menopause. Research has not supported their use for other signs and symptoms that people may experience after menopause, which include anxiety, mood changes, weight gain, and reduced bone density.

Currently, the FDA have not approved any products for testosterone therapy in females. Additionally, in the USA, there are no readily available formulations that provide the recommended treatment dose of 300 micrograms per day for females. As a result, a female will typically need a compounding pharmacy to fill the prescription.

Masculinizing hormone therapy

Testosterone therapy allows people to develop a more masculine appearance. Transgender men, nonbinary people, and other individuals may choose to use testosterone injections as part of a gender transition. This use of testosterone injections is known as masculinizing hormone therapy.

Testosterone therapy helps a person develop male sexual characteristics and reduce female characteristics, and it can lead to any of the following changes:

  • changes in emotional and social functioning
  • growing more facial hair
  • increased body hair
  • increased acne
  • a deeper voice
  • a receding hairline with male pattern baldness
  • changes in the location of body fat
  • increases in muscle mass
  • absence of menstrual periods

These testosterone therapy regimens are similar to those that treat hypogonadism in males. Taking testosterone injections once a week may be the best way to keep the levels of this hormone even.

Testosterone example

testosterone uses, testosterone definition

What Do Our Bodies Use Testosterone For?

Testosterone is often called the “male” hormone. However, both men and women produce this hormone. Hormones are molecules that regulate the body. They are usually produced in one location in the body and travel to other organs. Other hormones in the body include growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Testosterone is an androgen hormone. It produces male characteristics in the body. Testosterone is made in the following locations:

Men have higher levels of testosterone in their bodies than women do. In either sex, if testosterone levels become imbalanced, adverse symptoms can occur.

Testosterone is responsible for many actions in the male body throughout a man’s life cycle. It helps the external and internal organs of a male fetus develop. This includes the male reproductive organs such as the penis and testicles. During puberty, testosterone is responsible for:

Testosterone is also associated with behaviors such as aggression and sexual drive. Men need testosterone to make sperm for reproduction.

In women, testosterone also contributes to a woman’s sex drive. It also helps to secrete hormones important in a woman’s menstrual cycle.

Testosterone also plays common roles for both sexes. For example, the hormone stimulates the body to make new red blood cells. Testosterone can also affect a man’s bone density, fat distribution, and muscle strength.

Low testosterone in men can cause many physical symptoms. It can also cause insulin resistance, which can contribute to diabetes. Examples of symptoms caused by low testosterone in men include:

  • decreased sex drive
  • erectile dysfunction
  • higher percentage of stomach fat
  • gynecomastia (development of breast tissue)
  • infertility
  • lack of body hair
  • lack of deepening of the voice
  • low muscle mass
  • slowed growth of the testicles or penis

A boy will typically start puberty at around age 10. If this is delayed, low testosterone levels could be the cause. Possible causes of low testosterone in men include:

  • chronic health conditions such as diabetes
  • damage to the testes, such as from physical trauma, alcoholism, or viral illnesses
  • genetic diseases, including Klinefelter, Kallman, or Prader-Willi syndromes
  • hypothalamic disease or tumor
  • pituitary disease or tumor
  • testicular failure

Symptoms and causes of low testosterone in women

In women, low testosterone can result in:

Low testosterone in women can be caused by:

In both genders, low testosterone levels can cause mood changes such as:

Having too much testosterone can also cause health problems.

Excess testosterone in males

In boys, undergoing early puberty, also called precocious puberty, can cause development of:

Early puberty can be caused by tumors and a condition known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Potential causes of excess testosterone in men include:

Excess testosterone in women

In women, excess testosterone can cause a condition known as hirsutism. This causes a woman to develop body hair in a male fashion, including on the face. Virilization is another condition caused by excess testosterone. This causes a woman to have a masculine appearance. Symptoms can include male pattern baldness and a deep voice.

Ovary or adrenal gland tumors and polycystic ovarian syndrome are potential causes.

Taking certain medications can increase testosterone levels in both men and women. Examples of these medications include:

Talk to your doctor before you stop taking any medications.

A man’s testosterone levels will typically peak somewhere between age 20 and 30. After this time, they will gradually decrease for the rest of his life. Testosterone levels are estimated to decrease by 1 percent annually after age 30 to 40. Therefore, lower testosterone levels are more common among older men. This explains some of the age-related changes in men, such as loss of muscle mass.

Women’s testosterone levels peak in their 20s and then begin to slowly decline. When a woman starts to experience menopause, her testosterone levels are half of what they were at their peak. A woman’s adrenal glands will make less testosterone during menopause. The ovaries will continue to produce testosterone after menopause but stop producing estrogen and progesterone. Most age-related changes in women are caused by a lack of estrogen and progesterone.

Treating the condition that is causing high or low testosterone levels can help restore levels. But it’s not always possible to find a cause of testosterone imbalances. Your doctor can prescribe testosterone replacement to correct low levels.

There are several treatments for hypogonadism or low testosterone. Examples include:

Both men and women may take testosterone therapy. A woman may take testosterone to improve sex drive and reduce sexual dysfunction. However, women must have an appropriate level of estrogen before treatment. This is because testosterone can affect a woman’s estrogen levels.

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can cause side effects, such as:

  • acne
  • breast tenderness or enlargement
  • increased amount of red blood cells
  • infertility
  • small testicles
  • swelling of the low extremities

You should have regular checkups with your doctor while undergoing TRT. This is to make sure your levels are increasing as they should.

Some older men with healthy testosterone levels take the supplement to increase strength and energy. But current research doesn’t support that testosterone supplements can provide these effects in men with healthy levels.

Last medically reviewed on January 30, 2017

How we reviewed this article:

Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.

  • Goldman, B. (2013, December 23). In men, hightestosterone can mean weakened immune response, study finds
    https://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2013/12/in-men-high-testosterone-can-mean-weakened-immune-response-study-finds.html
  • Mayo Clinic Staff. (2015, April 1). Testosteronetherapy: potential benefits and risks as you age
    http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/testosterone-therapy/art-20045728
  • Snyder, P., Bhasin, S., Cunningham, G., Matsumoto,A., Stephens-Shields, A., … Ellenberg, S. (2016, February 18). Effects oftestosterone treatment in older men. NewEngland Journal of Medicine, 374, 611-624
    http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1506119#t=article
  • Testosterone. (2016, February 26)
    https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/testosterone/tab/test/
  • Testosterone information. (2015, March 3).Retrieved from
    http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm161874.htm
  • Testosterone therapy in women – does it boostsex drive? (2016, April 21)
    http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/menopause/expert-answers/testosterone-therapy/faq-20057935
  • Treatment of low testosterone. (n.d.)
    https://med.virginia.edu/urology/testosterone-replacement-therapy/treatment-of-low-testosterone/
  • What is low testosterone? (n.d.)
    http://urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/low-testosterone-(hypogonadism)

Where does testosterone come from

where does testosterone come from

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NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-.

StatPearls [Internet].

Physiology, Testosterone

Authors

Affiliations

Introduction

Testosterone is the primary male hormone responsible for regulating sex differentiation, producing male sex characteristics, spermatogenesis, and fertility. Testosterone’s effects are first seen in the fetus. During the first 6 weeks of development, the reproductive tissues of males and females are identical. At around week 7 in utero, the SRY (sex-related gene on the Y chromosome) initiates the development of the testicles. Sertoli cells from the testis cords (fetal testicles) eventually develop into seminiferous tubules. Sertoli cells produce a Mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS), which leads to the regression of the Fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper segment of the vagina (Mullerian structures normally present in females). Fetal Leydig cells and endothelial cells migrate into the gonad and produce testosterone, which supports the differentiation of the Wolffian duct (mesonephric duct) structures that go on to become the male urogenital tract. Testosterone also gets converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the periphery (discussed below) and induces the formation of the prostate and male external genitalia. Testosterone is also responsible for testicular descent through the inguinal canal, which occurs in the last 2 months of fetal development. When an embryo lacks a Y chromosome and thus the SRY gene, ovaries develop. Fetal ovaries do not produce adequate amounts of testosterone, thus the Wolffian ducts do not develop. There is also an absence of MIS in these individuals, leading to the development of the Mullerian ducts and female reproductive structures. [1]

Function

Testosterone is responsible for the development of primary sexual development, which includes testicular descent, spermatogenesis, enlargement of the penis and testes, and increasing libido. The testes usually begin the descent into the scrotum around 7 months of gestation, when the testes begin secreting reasonable quantities of testosterone. If a male child is born with undescended but normal testes that do not descend by 4 to 6 months of age, administration of testosterone can help the testes descend through the inguinal canals. [2]

Testosterone is also involved in regulating secondary male characteristics, which are those responsible for masculinity. These secondary sex characteristics include male hair patterns, vocal changes, and voice deepening, anabolic effects, which include growth spurts in puberty (testosterone increases tissue growth at the epiphyseal plate early on and eventual closure of plate later in puberty) and skeletal muscle growth (testosterone stimulates protein synthesis). Testosterone also stimulates erythropoiesis, which results in a higher hematocrit in males versus females. Testosterone levels tend to drop with increasing age; because of this, men tend to experience a decrease in testicular size, a drop in libido, lower bone density, muscle mass decline, increased fat production, and decreased erythropoiesis, which leads to possible anemia.

Mechanism

In puberty, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis plays a major role in regulating testosterone levels and gonadal function. The hypothalamus secretes GnRH, which travels down the hypothalamohypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary, which secretes luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). LH and FSH are two gonadotropic hormones that travel through the blood and act on receptors in the gonads. LH, in particular, acts on the Leydig cells to increase testosterone production. Testosterone limits its own secretion via negative feedback. High levels of testosterone in the blood feedback to the hypothalamus to suppress the secretion of GnRH and also feedback to the anterior pituitary, making it less responsive to GnRH stimuli. [3]

Throughout the reproductive life of males, the hypothalamus releases GnRH in pulses every 1 to 3 hours. Despite this pulsatile release, however, average plasma levels of FSH and LH remain fairly constant from the start of puberty, where levels spike, to the third decade of life, where levels peak and slowly begin to decline. Prior to puberty, testosterone levels are low, reflecting the low secretion of GnRH and gonadotropins. Changes in neuronal input to the hypothalamus and brain activity during puberty cause a dramatic rise in GnRH secretion.

Leydig cells in the testes function to turn cholesterol into testosterone. LH regulates the initial step in this process. Two important intermediates in this process are dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Androstenedione is converted to testosterone by the enzyme 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The majority of testosterone is bound to plasma proteins such as sex-hormone-binding-globulin and albumin. This majority supply of protein-bound testosterone acts as a surplus of testosterone hormone for the body. The small amounts of free testosterone in the blood act at the level of the tissues, primarily the seminal vesicles, bone, muscle, and prostate gland. At the cellular level, testosterone gets converted to dihydrotestosterone by the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone can bind to cell receptors and regulate protein expression. Both men and women also produce weak acting androgens in the zona reticularis of the adrenal glands. These weak-acting androgens are known as dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione. They bind to testosterone receptors with weaker affinity but can also be converted to testosterone in the peripheral tissues if produced at high amounts. [4]

Related Testing

Features of testosterone deficiency can be very apparent, which is why the first steps in diagnosing male hypogonadism involve adequate history taking and physical exam. The features indicative of male hypogonadism can be divided into pre and post-pubertal. Pre-pubertal features include small testes (less than 20 mL in volume), small phallus, decreased secondary sex characteristics (e.g., facial or axillary hair), gynecomastia, difficulty gaining muscle mass, eunuchoid proportions, low sperm count, and low energy/libido. Post-pubertal features include those previously mentioned (except phallus size and eunuchoid proportions) as well as osteoporosis and hot flashes with severe hypogonadism.

If a clinician expects hypogonadism based on history and physical, a total serum testosterone between 8 AM and 10 AM should be drawn. Normal levels may indicate eugonadal low testosterone. If levels are low, a repeat level should be obtained along with FSH and LH levels. Low testosterone in the setting of normal FSH/LH indicates secondary hypogonadism. The next steps would be to get prolactin, T4, 8 AM cortisol, iron, and ferritin levels as well as brain MRI. Low testosterone in the setting of elevated FSH/LH indicated primary hypogonadism. In the case of primary hypogonadism, a karyotype should be established.

Hyperandrogenism also has various clinical presentations, depending on puberty status and gender. Prepubertal boys with hyperandrogenism may present with virilization. Virilization includes penile enlargement, excess hair growth in androgen-dependent areas, and voice deepening. In prepubertal girls, hyperandrogenism may lead to clitoromegaly, acne, and hirsutism. In adult males, the effects of excess testosterone depend on whether the source is from the adrenals or exogenous. Adrenal androgen elevations have few observable effects in males and do not cause an increase in muscle mass or hair growth. In adult females, increased adrenal androgens can lead to acne, hirsutism, menstrual irregularities, infertility, male-pattern baldness, or virilization.

Testosterone can be used to treat and manage various medical conditions. Medical conditions in which testosterone can be used include metastatic breast cancer, delayed puberty, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (congenital or acquired), and primary hypogonadism. Toxic effects of testosterone and synthetic androgens include over-masculinization, hirsutism, decreased menses, acne, and clitoral enlargement. Rarely, synthetic androgens can cause hepatic adenoma, cholestatic jaundice, and prostatic hypertrophy. Synthetic androgens and testosterone are contraindicated in pregnancy.

Androgen antagonists come in different types. GnRH analogs, if given continuously, can act as medical castration drugs and are used in treating prostate cancer. Androgen receptor inhibitors, like flutamide and spironolactone, can be used for patients with hirsutism. Steroid synthesis inhibitors, like ketoconazole, can be used in Cushing disease. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, like finasteride, can be used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. [5]

Clinical Significance

Pathology related to testosterone involves either over-production, under-production, receptor insensitivity, or impaired metabolism of testosterone. The following are a few of the more common and highly tested testosterone pathologies.

Over-production of androgens can occur in the following conditions: polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), adrenal virilization/adrenal tumors, ovarian or testicular tumors, Cushing syndrome, and as a result of exogenous steroid use. To better understand some of these pathologies it is important to note the differences between testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). DHEA is a relatively weak androgen produced by the adrenals and ovaries/testes. DHEA serves as a precursor for other hormones including testosterone and estrogen. The sulfated form of DHEA, DHEAS, is specific for the adrenal glands. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), abnormal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion leads to an increase in LH secretion. LH stimulates androgen production by ovarian theca cells which leads to hirsutism, male escutcheon, acne and androgenic alopecia in women affected with PCOS.[6] In adrenal and ovarian tumors, there is usually rapidly progressing androgenic symptoms (hirsutism, virilization). If testosterone is elevated and DHEAS is normal, this is most likely from an ovarian tumor. If DHEAS is elevated and testosterone is relatively normal, this is most likely an adrenal tumor.

Decreased production of testosterone can occur with aging, certain medications, chemotherapy, hypothalamus-pituitary axis disorders, primary hypogonadism, cryptorchidism and orchitis, and with genetic disorders such as Klinefelter and Kallmann syndrome. Klinefelter syndrome is the most common congenital abnormality that results in primary hypogonadism. In Klinefelter, there is dysgenesis of seminiferous tubules and loss of Sertoli cells which leads to a decrease in inhibin levels and a resultant increase in FSH. FSH upregulates aromatase leading to increased conversion of androgens to estrogens. In Klinefelter, there is also Leydig cell dysfunction which leads to decreased testosterone levels and an increase in LH due to loss of negative feedback. In Kallmann syndrome, failed migration of GnRH-producing neurons leads to lack of GnRH. No GnRH results in a decrease in LH, FSH, testosterone, and sperm count. Specific to Kallmann syndrome, in comparison to other causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is defects in the sensation of smell (hyposmia or anosmia). [7],[8],[9]

5-alpha reductase is an enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Male patients with 5-alpha reductase deficiency present with normal female or male genitalia or ambiguous genitalia at birth due to lack of dihydrotestosterone. These patients have a male internal urogenital tract (anti-Mullerian hormone is still present). At puberty, adolescents with this enzyme deficiency, who may have been raised as girls due to lack of secondary male characteristics, begin to develop male secondary sex characteristics and have primary amenorrhea. These patients will have normal testosterone and LH, low DHT, and an increased testosterone-to-DHT ratio. In contrast to 5-alpha reductase deficiency, androgen insensitivity is a condition in which patients lack functional androgen receptors resulting in under-virilization. These patients, like those with 5-alpha reductase deficiency, have a 46 XY karyotype. In contrast, however, these patients have normal female external genitalia and usually undescended testes. In adolescence, they experience primary amenorrhea and breast development but have no pubic or axillary hair and lack the deepening voice changes that occur with puberty. They will have a blind vaginal pouch and abnormal internal reproductive organs (fallopian tubes, uterus, and the upper portion of the vagina) due to the production of the Mullerian inhibiting factor. These patients will have high levels of testosterone and LH. [10]

Impaired testosterone metabolism can occur in certain cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In classic CAH (95% of cases), due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency, newborns usually present with ambiguous genitalia and later develop salt wasting, vomiting, hypotension, and acidosis. A marked increase in 17-hydroxyprogesterone is diverted towards adrenal androgen synthesis and leads to hyperandrogenism. Hyperandrogenism impairs hypothalamic sensitivity to progesterone leading to a rapid rise in GnRH synthesis and thus increased LH and FSH. Elevations in LH and FSH lead to increased gonadal steroid production (17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, testosterone, LH, and FSH). Diagnosis is with adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test showing exaggerated 17 hydroxyprogesterone response. [11]

Testosterone supplements

testosterone supplements

Men’s Health Information And Advice You Can Trust

Dr. Myles Spar is a double board-certified medical expert in performance medicine, men’s health, advanced testing and integrative medicine.

Commissions we earn from partner links on this page do not affect our opinions or evaluations. Our editorial content is based on thorough research and guidance from the Forbes Health Advisory Board.

Table of Contents

Low testosterone is not an uncommon problem in men, particularly as you age. If you’re experiencing unexplained fatigue or a reduced sex drive, you may be wondering if boosting your testosterone levels could be the answer—and if there are vitamins and supplements that can help.

While there is not strong evidence backing the use of certain supplements for boosting testosterone levels, a number of key vitamins and minerals might make a difference. Here’s what you need to know.

Partner Offers feature brands who paid Forbes Health to appear at the top of our list. While this may influence where their products or services appear on our site, it in no way affects our ratings, which are based on thorough research, solid methodologies and expert advice. Our partners cannot pay us to guarantee favorable reviews of their products or services

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What Is Testosterone?

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and is produced in the testicles. During puberty, its presence contributes to hair growth, strength and a deeper voice. Later in life, it’s responsible for maintaining muscle mass, bone density and sexual function. However, as you age, testosterone levels can drop—research estimates that levels decrease at a rate of 1% to 2% per year after the age of 40 [1] Lopresti AL, Drummond PD, Smith SJ. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Examining the Hormonal and Vitality Effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) in Aging, Overweight Males. Am J Mens Health. 2019 Mar-Apr;13(2):1557988319835985. .

It can be difficult to identify whether your testosterone levels are low, as the symptoms overlap with many other conditions, such as those that affect the thyroid or heart, says Vikas Desai, M.D., a urologist with Northwestern Medicine in Geneva, Illinois.

Symptoms of low testosterone levels include:

  • Reduced lean muscle mass
  • Decreased energy
  • Low libido
  • Depression
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Decreased testicular size
  • Lower bone density
  • Increased fat production

What is a Testosterone Booster Supplement?

The term “testosterone booster” may refer to a supplement that claims to increase levels of testosterone in the body. Other testosterone boosters may be medically prescribed, such as a treatment known as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) intended to address testosterone deficiencies in men. TRT may increase energy and libido levels, improve bone density, strength and muscle mass and promote heart health.

While TRT is a scientifically-formulated medication, testosterone booster supplements typically contain vitamins, minerals and herbs that may have testosterone-promoting properties. Individuals may decide to consume testosterone booster supplements to combat the effects of low testosterone, such as low energy and decreased muscle mass.

What Do Testosterone Boosters Do?

Testosterone boosters without a prescription typically consist of vitamins and minerals that supposedly help increase levels of testosterone in the body. In individuals who are deficient in certain vitamins or minerals, testosterone-promoting supplements may support some improvements in areas such as muscle mass, mobility, energy and body weight when combined with healthy diet and exercise—however, a lack of research in this area makes drawing any firm conclusions around testosterone-boosting supplements difficult.

Vitamins and Minerals That Boost Testosterone

If you are low in testosterone—or feel like you might be—it can be tempting to look for a vitamin or other supplement that can help. Just one internet search and you’ll find pages of results with suggestions.

The problem is that there’s not a lot of high-quality scientific evidence that supports particular vitamins and minerals as being an effective way to boost testosterone, says Dr. Desai.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is an important fat-soluble vitamin present in certain foods and dietary supplements, and is also produced within the body after exposure from ultraviolet rays from the sun.

Some research shows a link between vitamin D deficiency and reduced testosterone. In one small study of overweight men undergoing a weight reduction program, those who received 3,332 IU of vitamin D daily for a year saw a significant increase in testosterone levels compared to those who did not supplement with vitamin D [2] Pilz S, Frisch S, Koertke H, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43(3):223-225. .

Given that the daily recommended dose of vitamin D for most adults is 600 IU, Dr. Desai cautions that not everyone hoping to boost their testosterone levels should start taking a dose of 3,000 IU. “You need monitoring if you’re going to take that high of a dosage,” he says. “The concern is that toxicity can build up and lead to side effects such as bone pain, hypercalcemia and kidney stones.” But if your vitamin D level is low, it may be helpful to supplement, and experts note the most effective form of supplementation is vitamin D3.

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Zinc

Research has also found a link between the essential mineral zinc and testosterone levels. A study in the Journal of Exercise Physiology found that when a small group of college football players took 30 milligrams of zinc a day (along with magnesium and vitamin B-6) they increased their testosterone levels [3] Brilla LR, Conte V. Effects of a Novel Zinc-Magnesium Formulation on Hormones and Strength. Journal of Exercise Physiology. 2000;3(4):26-36. . However, this is about three times the recommended daily allowance.

Note that this study was very small in size and on subjects who were engaging in intensive training—therefore, experts emphasize that the main take-home message here may be to have your zinc levels checked if your testosterone level is low and, if that level is low, to work on increasing your zinc levels through supplementation or diet.

“Zinc has some promise, but it can cause side effects and interact with medications you may be taking,” says Dr. Desai. In addition to taking a zinc supplement, you can get zinc from foods such as:

  • Meats (beef, chicken, pork)
  • Oysters
  • Crab
  • Lobster
  • Beans
  • Yogurt
  • Oatmeal
  • Nuts
  • Fortified cereals

Top Supplements to Boost Testosterone

There are numerous supplements out there claiming to boost testosterone. The important thing to remember when looking at supplements is that besides there not being evidence supporting their use for this purpose, they’re not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as medicine, and there is no regulatory body overseeing the ingredients.

“Don’t pick the first thing you see or the supplement with the best marketing,” says Dr. Desai. “Find out what the active ingredient is instead of the tag name, and do a search for that. Search the side effects—that’s a way to do your due diligence, as is seeing a medical provider to ask his or her opinion before you try any of these. It will be beneficial in the long run.”

The most promising supplement for boosting testosterone, according to Dr. Desai, is ashwagandha. A 2019 study in the American Journal of Men’s Health examined overweight men, ages 40 to 70, with mild to moderate fatigue or reduced vitality. Taking an ashwagandha extract for eight weeks significantly boosted their levels of testosterone, but researchers noted that further investigation is needed [4] Lopresti AL, Drummond PD, Smith SJ. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Examining the Hormonal and Vitality Effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) in Aging, Overweight Males.. Am J M Health. 2019;13(2):1557988319835985. .

“I can’t say that I’d recommend any supplements, but if you’re interested, I’d definitely talk to a medical provider before you embark on trying one,” says Dr. Desai.

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Health Benefits of Supplements that Boost Testosterone

For individuals with low testosterone levels or who are deficient in certain vitamins, research indicates that when combined with exercise and a healthy diet, taking a testosterone boosting supplement may provide increased energy levels, muscle mass and strength, as well as better weight maintenance, sexual function and bone density. However, because there is not a lot of direct research in the area of testosterone boosting supplements, it’s important to run any new vitamins or supplements by your personal physician before adding it to your regime.

Potential Side Effects of Testosterone Boosters

Consuming testosterone boosters that contain nutrients like zinc or ashwagandha may cause the following side effects :

Additionally, many supplements that claim to offer testosterone-boosting benefits contain vitamins, minerals and herbs that may interact with certain medications. Ashwagandha, for instance, may interact with medications for high blood pressure, diabetes and seizures, as well as sedatives and thyroid medications.

If you’re considering adding a testosterone booster to your routine, first consult with your doctor to determine the best supplement for your needs.

Are Testosterone Supplements Safe?

Because the FDA does not regulate supplements to the same standards as medications, it’s difficult to know how safe and effective they are. To ensure the supplement you’re consuming is free of harmful ingredients, look for products that have been third-party tested for impurities. Consult with your doctor before adding a new supplement to your routine to determine any nutrient deficiencies and an appropriate dosage.

When to Consider Testosterone Boosters

Individuals who are experiencing the symptoms of low testosterone, such as loss of energy, low libido, depression and decreased muscle mass, may want to consider taking a supplement to naturally increase their testosterone levels. However, the only way to determine testosterone levels is to undergo a saliva or blood test, which can be performed either at-home or with your health care provider. Speak with your doctor to decide if you should take a testosterone booster supplement and to determine the appropriate dosage for your needs.

How to Choose the Best Testosterone-Boosting Supplement

The best testosterone-boosting supplement for you will be determined by factors such as ingredients, dosage, cost, side effects and personal preference. Additionally, aim to find a supplement that is third-party tested to ensure that the product includes the ingredients listed on the label. Consult with your doctor to determine the best testosterone booster supplement for you.

When to See a Doctor

The only way to know for sure if your testosterone levels are low is to get tested by your doctor. Start by talking to your primary care doctor, who may refer you to a urologist. “Oftentimes people come in thinking they have low testosterone and they don’t,” he says. “A lot of times there are simple diet and exercise tweaks they can make to naturally boost it.”

Some of the lifestyle factors that have an impact on testosterone levels include:

  • Sleep. “If you sleep five hours a day or less, your testosterone levels can go down by up to 15%,” says Dr. Desai. Create a sleep routine and prioritize getting enough rest each night.
  • Diet. A healthy eating plan that’s light on sugar, caffeine and processed foods will give you the best shot at keeping your hormones in balance. Also, maintaining a healthy weight helps keep testosterone levels up. The more body fat you have, the more likely you are to have lower testosterone.
  • Exercise. A combination of resistance and cardio training will increase the production of testosterone. (Although it’s worth noting that a high amount of endurance training or sports with calorie restriction can decrease testosterone levels.) Higher amounts of muscle mass contributes to higher levels of testosterone.
  • Alcohol and tobacco. Both drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes can reduce testosterone.
  • Stress. Excessive amounts of stress can lead the body to convert testosterone to estrogen.

If you’re interested in trying a vitamin, mineral or supplement to see what impact it has on your testosterone levels, talk to your doctor about the potential side effects and whether it’s safe for you.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What’s the best testosterone-boosting supplement available?

The best testosterone-boosting supplement will contain nutrients that support healthy testosterone levels in the body and have been third-party tested for safety and purity.

Are testosterone boosters worth it?

If you’re experiencing the symptoms of low testosterone levels, such as depression, low libido and decreased muscle mass, it may be worth it to add a testosterone booster to your routine. However, it’s very important to speak with your health care provider first to determine if you need a testosterone-boosting supplement.

Are there ways to boost testosterone naturally?

Research indicates that individuals with certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies may be able to naturally increase testosterone levels by consuming supplements. Additionally, there is evidence that certain herbs, such as ashwagandha, may increase testosterone levels in the body.

Are testosterone supplements legal?

Many supplements claiming to increase testosterone levels in the body contain vitamins, minerals and herbs that have been shown to support testosterone production. Additionally, many supplements that claim to naturally boost testosterone are available over-the-counter and from online retailers.

Sources

Footnotes

  • Lopresti AL, Drummond PD, Smith SJ. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Examining the Hormonal and Vitality Effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) in Aging, Overweight Males. Am J Mens Health. 2019 Mar-Apr;13(2):1557988319835985.
  • Pilz S, Frisch S, Koertke H, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43(3):223-225.
  • Brilla LR, Conte V. Effects of a Novel Zinc-Magnesium Formulation on Hormones and Strength. Journal of Exercise Physiology. 2000;3(4):26-36.
  • Lopresti AL, Drummond PD, Smith SJ. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Examining the Hormonal and Vitality Effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) in Aging, Overweight Males.. Am J M Health. 2019;13(2):1557988319835985.

References

  • Nassar GN, Leslie SW. Physiology, Testosterone. StatPearls Publishing. 2022.
  • What Is Low Testosterone?. Urology Care Foundation. Accessed 5/4/2022.
  • Vitamin D: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institutes of Health. Accessed 5/4/2022.
  • Holt R, Juel Mortensen L, Harpelunde Poulsen K, Nielsen JE, Frederiksen H, Jørgensen N, Jørgensen A, Juul A, Blomberg Jensen M. Vitamin D and sex steroid production in men with normal or impaired Leydig cell function. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2020;199:105589.
  • Zinc: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institutes of Health. Accessed 5/4/2022.
  • Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effect of 1 Week of Sleep Restriction on Testosterone Levels in Young Healthy Men. JAMA. 2011;305(21):2173-2174.
  • Improving Low Testosterone Naturally. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Accessed 5/4/2022.
  • Almaiman AA. Effect of testosterone boosters on body functions: Case report. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2018;12(2):86-90.
  • Cinar V, Polat Y, Baltaci AK, Mogulkoc R. Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;140(1):18-23.
  • Prasad AS, Mantzoros CS, Beck FW, et al. Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Nutrition. 1996;12(5):344-348.
  • Pilz S, Frisch S, Koertke H, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43(3):223-225.
  • Maggio M, De Vita F, Lauretani F, et al. The Interplay between Magnesium and Testosterone in Modulating Physical Function in Men. Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:525249.
  • Wankhede S, Langade D, Joshi K, et al. Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:43.
  • Rao A, Steels E, Inder WJ, et al. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study. Aging Male. 2016;19(2):134-142.
  • Vitamin D: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institutes of Health. Accessed 6/9/2023.
  • Ashwagandha. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Accessed 6/9/2023.
  • Rabinovich D, Smadi Y. Zinc. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 2023.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency. MedlinePlus. Accessed 6/9/2023.
  • Testosterone Levels Test. MedlinePlus. Accessed 6/9/2023.
  • Lopresti AL, Drummond PD, Smith SJ. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Examining the Hormonal and Vitality Effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) in Aging, Overweight Males. Am J Mens Health. 2019;13(2):1557988319835985.
  • Kumar P, Kumar N, Thakur DS, Patidar A. Male hypogonadism: Symptoms and treatment. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010;1(3):297-301.
  • Osterberg EC, Bernie AM, Ramasamy R. Risks of testosterone replacement therapy in men. Indian J Urol. 2014;30(1):2-7.

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What are the side effects of testosterone injections?

outlook spotlight, testosterone injections,

Side Effects of Testosterone Injections: Testosterone Injection Side Effects in Males

Injections of pure testosterone are known as testosterone injections. Both men and females have this hormone, although males normally have greater quantities.

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Hormone therapies include testosterone injections. They are mostly used to treat postmenopausal problems in females with low testosterone levels and dysfunction in men. As an aspect of masculinizing treatment, testosterone injections may also be used by nonbinary and transgender persons. Click here to buy alternative to Testosterone Injections OTC such as Testodren .

Many individuals find testosterone injections to be safe, although there are potential negative effects. Depending on why the individual is taking the injections, the adverse effects may vary. The ramifications of testosterone injections are discussed in the section that follows.

Testosterone injections may have some modest adverse effects, such as breast augmentation or soreness.

  • a deeper voice
  • acne
  • tiredness
  • hoarseness
  • back discomfort
  • difficulty falling asleep or staying awake
  • redness, bruising, soreness, bleeding, or hardness of the area where injected
  • gaining weight
  • joint pain
  • mood changes
  • headaches

If someone has more adverse effects, such as nausea or vomiting, they should see their doctor. Other side effects are as follows:

  • lower leg discomfort
  • erythema
  • edema of the lower legs, ankles, feet, or hands
  • difficulty breathing
  • Yellow eyes or skin
  • changes in the way of urinating, such as trouble urinating or increased frequency of urination, weak urine flow, or blood in the urine
  • significant abdominal ache in the top right portion
  • mood swings, such as despair, anxiety, or suicidal thoughts

What are testosterone injections?

Injections of pure testosterone are known as testosterone injections. Both men and females have this hormone, although males normally have greater quantities.

In the US, testosterone treatment is becoming increasingly widespread. Doctors should ensure that the patient is aware of the dangers and benefits of long-term testosterone treatment and has done so before suggesting it.

The applications of testosterone injections are covered in the following section.

Treating men with low testosterone levels

To treat men with low testosterone levels, doctors may advise testosterone injections. Hypogonadism refers to decreased testosterone production by the testicles.

It may be harmful to have low testosterone levels. Increased body fat, a loss of muscle or bone mass, and ed are signs of low testosterone in men. Adult men in good health typically have blood levels of total testosterone between 280 to 1,100 nanograms every deciliter (ng/dl).

The following advantages of testosterone treatment for hypogonadism

  • Enhanced performance
  • Improved strength and lean muscle mass
  • Enhanced mental state or increased mental capacity
  • Maybe a decline in osteoporosis

It’s vital to remember that this treatment only addresses the outward signs of low testosterone, not their underlying causes.

A doctor can test anyone who thinks they might have inadequate testosterone. The symptoms, meanwhile, are extremely generic and could be brought on by other illnesses or aspects of one’s lifestyle.

Treatment is not always effective and safe for men with low testosterone. Males with insufficient testosterone who have brain, pituitary, or testicular diseases are the only ones for whom testosterone replacement treatment is authorized; age-related reductions are not included.

Treatment with testosterone in women

The use of testosterone treatment in ladies is more debatable than in males.

In healthy adult females, the range of total testosterone levels is 15–70 ng/dl. Decreased levels in females may impact desire, vaginal dryness, irregular periods, and reproductive issues. However, due to the potential for masculinizing effects, physicians seldom advise testosterone injections to alleviate low testosterone in women.

To treat hypoactive desire conditions in females following menopause, physicians may advise testosterone treatment. Their application for other postmenopausal signs and symptoms, including anxiety, mood swings, weight gain, and decreased bone density, has not been validated by research.

There are no easily accessible formulations in the USA that give the 300 micrograms daily for females that are advised as the optimal therapeutic dosage. In order to complete the prescription, a female will usually need to go to a compounding pharmacy.

Treatment with masculinizing hormones

People who get testosterone treatment may look more manly. In order to transition their gender, transgender males, nonbinary persons, and other people may decide to take testosterone injections. The practice of injecting testosterone is referred to as masculinizing hormone treatment.

Testosterone treatment may result in any of the following given changes and helps a person acquire masculine traits while reducing feminine ones:

  • alterations in social and emotional functioning
  • increasing facial hair
  • increased body hair
  • increased acne
  • higher voice
  • male pattern baldness together with a receding hairline
  • alterations in body fat distribution and a rise in muscular mass
  • missing menstrual cycles

These testosterone treatment plans resemble those used to treat male hypogonadism. The easiest strategy to maintain consistent testosterone levels may be to provide injections once every week.

Various testosterone injection types

There are several types of testosterone injections. These include testosterone enanthate and testosterone cypionate.

How to use testosterone undecanoate

A testosterone injection allows the hormone to enter the body via the muscle directly. People have a choice between two approaches:

On a visit to the doctor’s office, having a doctor inject them into the muscle of the buttocks muscle

People who get testosterone injections often go to their doctor for monitoring every few months. Depending on the conditions of the patient, treatments may be short-term or permanent.

When administered according to a doctor’s recommendations, testosterone injections may very well be safe for many individuals. Research has, however, also connected testosterone treatment with a number of problems and adverse effects.

The following are possible side effects of testosterone therapy:

  • Lower urinary tract polycythemia, a rare form of blood cancer, is exacerbated in symptoms due to an elevated risk of cardiovascular problems.
  • There is a higher potential for venous thrombosis.
  • Testosterone injections may cause an allergic response in some persons. For instance, testosterone undecanoate injections may result in severe allergic reactions or respiratory problems. Breathing difficulties, lightheadedness, and skin rashes are other symptoms.

Other testosterone mixes, such as testosterone enanthate, may elevate blood pressure, increasing the risk of a heart attack or stroke.

Before beginning testosterone injections, patients should let their doctor know if they have ever had a stroke, heart disease, heart attack, or high blood pressure since they may be more susceptible to consequences.

After receiving testosterone injection, a person should seek immediate medical assistance if they develop any of the symptoms listed below:

  • breathlessness
  • sluggish or slurred speech
  • difficulty in speaking
  • chest pain
  • discomfort in the arms, legs or jaw
  • pain in the neck, back, or jaw,
  • dizziness or faintness

The purpose of giving adolescent male testosterone injections to address a constitutional delay in growth and puberty is to have a faster growth spurt during puberty. The adolescent’s eventual adult height should not be affected by this treatment.

What dangers may come with testosterone therapy?

The danger of clotting may be increased by an increased count of red blood cells, which is another concern for doctors.

People who utilize testosterone treatments for a prolonged period of time are likely to have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications such as strokes, heart attacks, and deaths caused by heart disease.

There is continuing concern among certain members of the medical community that testosterone therapy may hasten the growth of cancer cells in the prostate. There is inconsistency in the data, which is reflective of the theoretical cardiac concerns. Prostate cancer is very common. Hence, doctors hesitate before prescribing TRT to men who are at risk of developing the disease.

TRT or testosterone replacement therapy is suitable for men who have very low testosterone. The benefits outweigh any potential risks for men. Men who are having a bad time because of low testosterone get the chance to feel better when they use TRT. However, this is a very short-term therapy that has potential long-term side effects which are not yet known.

In light of the information it is necessary to Think about the potential risks while contemplating the use of medications for increasing testosterone levels or about testosterone therapy. If the man’s testosterone levels are borderline, they should avoid TRT.

Conclusion

The doctor recommended testosterone injection to those men who have the lowest Run level. Even if this treatment is unable to target the main cause of low testosterone, it can help with a few Symptoms associated with it. Testosterone shots can also be used along with masculinizing hormone therapy or for addressing dysfunction occurring due to Menopause in mails.

Men should be aware of and understand the potential side effects that are associated with testosterone usage. These side effects can be short term or long term. Men should undergo full body checkup under medical supervision, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of testosterone treatment before They undergo testosterone replacement therapy.

It is important to consult a doctor and follow their advice regarding TRT so that any likelihood of side effects can be avoided.

The main side effect, as mentioned before, is gynecomastia, which leads to the man having large women-like breasts. These are embarrassing for men and can be prevented if users follow the instructions of the doctor. They should consult a doctor before making any decisions.

The above is a sponsored post, the views expressed are those of the sponsor/author and do not represent the stand and views of Outlook Editorial.

Testosterone target organ

Endocrine System

The endocrine system is made up of glands that make hormones. Hormones are the body’s chemical messengers. They carry information and instructions from one set of cells to another.

The endocrine (EN-duh-krin) system influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.

What Does the Endocrine System Do?

  • Endocrine glands release into the bloodstream. This lets the hormones travel to cells in other parts of the body.
  • The endocrine hormones help control mood, growth and development, the way our organs work, , and reproduction.
  • The endocrine system regulates how much of each hormone is released. This can depend on levels of hormones already in the blood, or on levels of other substances in the blood, like calcium. Many things affect hormone levels, such as stress, infection, and changes in the balance of fluid and minerals in blood.

Too much or too little of any hormone can harm the body. Medicines can treat many of these problems.

What Are the Parts of the Endocrine System?

While many parts of the body make hormones, the major glands that make up the endocrine system are the:

  • hypothalamus
  • pituitary
  • thyroid
  • parathyroids
  • adrenals
  • pineal body
  • the ovaries
  • the testes

The pancreas is part of the endocrine system and the digestive system. That’s because it secretes hormones into the bloodstream, and makes and secretes enzymes into the digestive tract.

Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus (hi-po-THAL-uh-mus) is in the lower central part of the brain. It links the endocrine system and nervous system. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus make chemicals that control the release of hormones secreted from the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus gathers information sensed by the brain (such as the surrounding temperature, light exposure, and feelings) and sends it to the pituitary. This information influences the hormones that the pituitary makes and releases.

Pituitary: The pituitary (puh-TOO-uh-ter-ee) gland is at the base of the brain, and is no bigger than a pea. Despite its small size, the pituitary is often called the “master gland.” The hormones it makes control many other endocrine glands.

The pituitary gland makes many hormones, such as:

  • growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues and plays a role in the body’s handling of nutrients and minerals
  • prolactin (pro-LAK-tin), which activates milk production in women who are breastfeeding
  • thyrotropin (thy-ruh-TRO-pin), which stimulates the thyroid gland to make thyroid hormones
  • corticotropin (kor-tih-ko-TRO-pin), which stimulates the adrenal gland to make certain hormones
  • antidiuretic (an-ty-dy-uh-REH-tik) hormone, which helps control body water balance through its effect on the kidneys
  • oxytocin (ahk-see-TOE-sin), which triggers the contractions of the uterus that happen during labor

The pituitary also secretes endorphins (en-DOR-fins), chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain. The pituitary also secretes hormones that signal the reproductive organs to make sex hormones. The pituitary gland also controls and the menstrual cycle in women.

Thyroid: The thyroid (THY-royd) is in the front part of the lower neck. It’s shaped like a bow tie or butterfly. It makes the thyroid hormones thyroxine (thy-RAHK-sin) and triiodothyronine (try-eye-oh-doe-THY-ruh-neen). These hormones control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to make energy. The more thyroid hormone there is in the bloodstream, the faster chemical reactions happen in the body.

Thyroid hormones are important because they help kids’ and teens’ bones grow and develop, and they also play a role in the development of the brain and nervous system.

Parathyroids: Attached to the thyroid are four tiny glands that work together called the parathyroids (par-uh-THY-roydz). They release parathyroid hormone, which controls the level of calcium in the blood with the help of calcitonin (kal-suh-TOE-nin), which the thyroid makes.

Adrenal Glands: These two triangular adrenal (uh-DREE-nul) glands sit on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which makes a set of hormones and has a different function:

  1. The outer part is the adrenal cortex. It makes hormones called corticosteroids (kor-tih-ko-STER-oydz) that help control salt and water balance in the body, the body’s response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function.
  2. The inner part is the adrenal medulla (muh-DUH-luh). It makes catecholamines (kah-tuh-KO-luh-meenz), such as epinephrine (eh-puh-NEH-frun). Also called adrenaline, epinephrine increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body is under stress.

Pineal: The pineal (pih-NEE-ul) body, also called the pineal gland, is in the middle of the brain. It secretes melatonin (meh-luh-TOE-nin), a hormone that may help regulate when we sleep at night and wake in the morning.

Reproductive Glands: The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. In boys the male gonads, or testes (TES-teez), are in the scrotum. They secrete hormones called androgens (AN-druh-junz), the most important of which is (tess-TOSS-tuh-rone). These hormones tell a boy’s body when it’s time to make the changes associated with puberty, like penis and height growth, deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic hair. Working with hormones from the pituitary gland, testosterone also tells a boy’s body when it’s time to make sperm in the testes.

A girl’s gonads, the ovaries (OH-vuh-reez), are in her pelvis. They make eggs and secrete the female hormones (ESS-truh-jen) and (pro-JESS-tuh-rone). Estrogen is involved when a girl starts puberty. During puberty, a girl will have breast growth, start to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and have a growth spurt. Estrogen and progesterone are also involved in the regulation of a girl’s menstrual cycle. These hormones also play a role in pregnancy.

Pancreas: The pancreas (PAN-kree-us) makes insulin (IN-suh-lin) and glucagon (GLOO-kuh-gawn), which are hormones that control the level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood. Insulin helps keep the body supplied with stores of energy. The body uses this stored energy for exercise and activity, and it also helps organs work as they should.

What Can Help Keep the Endocrine System Healthy?

To help keep your child’s endocrine system healthy:

  • Get plenty of exercise.
  • Eat a nutritious diet.
  • Go for regular medical checkups.
  • Talk to the doctor before taking any supplements or herbal treatments.
  • Let the doctor know about any family history of endocrine problems, such as diabetes or thyroid problems.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

  • drinks a lot of water but is still thirsty
  • has to pee often
  • has frequent belly pain or nausea
  • is very tired or weak
  • is gaining or losing a lot of weight
  • has tremors or sweats a lot
  • is constipated
  • isn’t growing or developing as expected

Foods that increase testosterone in females

foods that increase testosterone in females

Foods that increase testosterone in females during menopause

When you’re going through perimenopause and menopause, you’re probably used to hearing the words oestrogen and progesterone bandied about. Not least because replenishing and stabilising these hormones can help to manage your symptoms, and many menopause treatments, like hormone replacement therapy (HRT), focus on doing exactly that.

There is a third hormone, however, that is not talked about quite as much, but which also falls during menopause and that is testosterone – a sex hormone that is produced in small amounts produced by the ovaries, adrenal glands and peripheral tissues in women.

Often referred to as ‘the male hormone’, testosterone can be just as important for women in keeping you feeling good and helping to manage your symptoms as oestrogen and progesterone. Whilst women might not need as high levels as men getting the right amount is important for a healthy sex drive and leaner body composition. The thing is, it isn’t licensed by the NHS in the UK for treating menopause so getting it prescribed can be tricky.

Many women look for foods that boost testosterone during menopause because they know about the impact on hormone levels that perimenopause and menopause can have. While specific foods can’t boost testosterone levels by themselves, there are certain foods that can help to support your body in testosterone production and keep your testosterone levels normal through menopause.

Why is testosterone important during menopause?

Levels of testosterone fall naturally with age and as you transition into perimenopause and menopause but other factors including lack of sleep, sustained stress and high body fat levels can also cause a decline in production.

When levels are low it can lead to unexplained tiredness, reduced sex drive, and it can become harder for you to build muscle and lose weight. Research into how low levels of testosterone specifically affect perimenopausal and menopausal women is in its infancy (as things stand there are more studies showing how it affects men rather than women) but there is some evidence to show when women are given more testosterone their energy levels, stamina, mood and libido all improve. [1]

Of course, getting more testosterone doesn’t automatically translate into women wanting sex and enjoying it more – alas, female desire and enjoyment can be frustratingly more complicated. We do know, however, that this hormone contributes to your libido, sexual arousal and orgasm by increasing dopamine levels in the central nervous system and when your body produces enough healthy levels of it, theoretically, you are more likely to want, and enjoy sex. It is also known to improve blood flow to your vaginal area and reduce some of menopause’s urogenital symptoms (such as lack of vaginal sensitivity and difficulty becoming aroused).

So how do you help maintain optimal testosterone levels? Some studies have shown that having a diet high in ultra-processed foods appears to reduce it [2] but, conversely, eating healthy nutrient-dense ones (like the ones listed below) can help increase it.

5 foods that help boost testosterone production

Nutritionist Helen Roach suggests five key foods that can help increase testosterone in women including:

Oysters & shellfish

“These contain zinc, which contributes to the maintenance of normal testosterone levels in the blood,” Helen explains. “Oysters are also a very good source of D-aspartic acid, an amino acid which can trigger testosterone production.” There has been encouraging evidence to show that supplementing with zinc can help testosterone levels and sexual function in postmenopausal women [3 ] but although there have been studies to show how D-aspartic acid can increase testosterone in men, as yet there is no similar research to show it has the same effect in women.

Avocados
Helen explains that avocados are rich in pregnenolone, a steroid hormone which acts as a precursor to testosterone production. Taking pregnenolone in supplement form has been shown to improve mood, brain function and memory, all factors that can be negatively affected during perimenopause and menopause. [4]

Salmon
“Salmon is high in a number of vitamins, as well as zinc, which helps to maintain the normal production of testosterone in the blood,” says Helen, suggesting it makes a menopause-friendly evening meal when accompanied by green leafy vegetables like spinach or kale. Alternatively, try smoked salmon with scrambled eggs for breakfast or with salad for lunch. Salmon is also packed with protein and omega 3 fatty acids, which can help both your energy and brain function.

Mushrooms
Helen recommends leaving your mushrooms out for a little sunbathe before you cook them, to make the most of their testosterone-boosting properties. Shitake mushrooms are best for this. Why? “Mushrooms become high in vitamin D and vitamin B5 when left in sunlight for an hour or so. These vitamins contribute to the normal synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones, and can help the production of regular testosterone,” she explains.

Broccoli, Cauliflower and Squash
Helen explains that these are all rich sources of Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid). This vitamin is responsible for the production of steroid hormones such as testosterone & oestrogen.

Foods that support testosterone production in menopause for vegetarians and vegans

We all need a steady intake of foods containing testosterone-boosting zinc because this mineral is not stored in the body so needs to be topped up regularly. Given that many of the best sources tend to be animal-based proteins like red meat (particularly beef and lamb), fish and seafood it has been suggested in the past that vegetarians or vegans might be at a slight disadvantage when it comes to getting enough.

Recent research, however, has shown there is little difference in the testosterone levels of meat eaters and vegans [5] and there are plenty of healthy alternative plant-based sources including pulses, oats, walnuts, cashew nuts, chia seeds, hemp seeds, pumpkin seeds and spinach so try to include as many of these in your daily diet as you can.

For vegan foods that boost testosterone, Helen suggests, “chickpeas, lentils and beans are a good source and research suggests sprouting, soaking or fermenting them can help increase zinc levels even further.” [6]

What else you can do to provide a testosterone boost?

    1. Managing stress. In the short-term stress shouldn’t affect your testosterone levels too much but if it is sustained and left unchecked this means your levels of the stress hormone cortisol are almost always elevated and this can play a big part in fluctuating testosterone levels. “The higher your level of cortisol the lower your testosterone level, and vice versa,” Helen explains. “In other words, anything that lowers cortisol increases the balance of testosterone in your body.” Exercise and some relaxing activities such as yoga or meditation can help to balance your hormones and keep you more calm, cool and centred. Find more advice from Dr Shilpa McQuillan here on coping with stress and anxiety during menopause.
    2. Sleep. This is the time when your body produces hormones like testosterone. If you are not getting enough sleep (and enough equates to around seven-nine hours nightly) it is likely you are not making enough testosterone. Researchers recording the sleeping patterns of healthy men have found that their testosterone levels increased the longer they slept. As women going through perimenopause and menopause are more likely to have their sleep disrupted by night sweats and sleep disturbances this can potentially disrupt production of hormones like testosterone.
    3. Laying off the caffeine As Helen explains, although caffeine has been seen to increase testosterone levels in men, it has been shown to lower them in women [7] – so perhaps cut down on your daily latte or switch to decaf.
    4. Exercise. Exercise increases testosterone because it increases muscle mass. Doing weight training and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) have been shown to increase testosterone levels (in men) [8]Regular physical activity will also help to keep your weight down and being overweight or obese is linked to lower testosterone. [9]
    5. Managing blood sugar levels (and insulin production) can support DHEA (a steroid hormone: dehydroepiandrosterone) in the adrenals – this is a precursor to testosterone. High sugar or refined carbohydrate consumption in the form of sweets, baked goods, breads, pastries, pasta and juices can increase insulin levels. This can cause vitamin and mineral imbalances as well as reduce DHEA production. Helen’s key advice here is “to limit these and add protein and/or fibre to each meal for balanced blood sugar.” She also noted that “Alcohol consumption is interconnected with varying levels of blood sugar. Initially blood sugar can increase but may lead to big dips in blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) if more than one drink is consumed. Following the UK guidelines of no more than 14 units per week, with food is the safest way to drink without impacting your blood sugar levels.”
    6. Ashwagandha has been shown to support women’s physical and psychological condition. As we know, testosterone levels in women decreases with age. Studies have shown that Ashwagandha can increase testosterone in women to help support their diminished sexual desire . [10]

Testosterone medication

testosterone medication

AndroGel 1.62% is a clear topical testosterone replacement therapy gel available in a metered dose pump.

AndroGel ® (testosterone gel) 1% and 1.62% are controlled substances, available by prescription, used to treat adult males who have low or no testosterone due to certain medical conditions.

It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective to treat men who have low testosterone due to aging.

It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective in children younger than 18 years old.

AndroGel is a controlled substance (CIII) because it contains testosterone that can be a target for people who abuse prescription medicines. Keep it in a safe place to protect it and never give it to anyone else. Selling or giving away this medicine may harm others and is against the law.

AndroGel is not meant for use in women.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION 1,2

USE AND IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION 1,2

USE 1,2

AndroGel ® (testosterone gel) 1% and 1.62% are controlled substances, available by prescription, used to treat adult males who have low or no testosterone due to certain medical conditions.

It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective to treat men who have low testosterone due to aging.

It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective in children younger than 18 years old.

AndroGel is a controlled substance (CIII) because it contains testosterone that can be a target for people who abuse prescription medicines. Keep it in a safe place to protect it and never give it to anyone else. Selling or giving away this medicine may harm others and is against the law.

AndroGel is not meant for use in women.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION 1,2

  • AndroGel can transfer from your body to others, including children and women. This can happen if other people come into contact with the area where the AndroGel was applied. Children and women should avoid contact with the unwashed or not covered (unclothed) areas where AndroGel has been applied to your skin.
  • Early signs and symptoms of puberty have occurred in young children who have come in direct contact with testosterone by touching areas where men have used AndroGel.
  • Signs and symptoms of early puberty in a child who has come in direct contact with AndroGel may include:
    • Abnormal sexual changes:
      • Enlarged penis or clitoris.
      • Early growth of hair near the vagina or around the penis (pubic hair).
      • Erections or acting out sexual urges (sex drive).
      • Changes in body hair.
      • An abnormal increase in pimples (acne).
      • Apply AndroGel 1.62% only to your shoulders and upper arms that will be covered by a short-sleeve t-shirt.
      • Apply AndroGel 1% only to areas of your shoulders, upper arms, or stomach area (abdomen) that will be covered by a short-sleeve t-shirt.
      • Wash your hands right away with soap and water after applying AndroGel.
      • After the gel has dried, cover the application area with clothing. Keep the area covered until you have washed the application area well or have showered.
      • If you expect to have skin-to-skin contact with another person, first wash the application area well with soap and water.
      • If a child or woman touches the area where you have applied AndroGel, that area on the child or woman should be washed well with soap and water right away.
      • Have breast cancer or have or might have prostate cancer.
      • Are pregnant. AndroGel may harm your unborn baby. Women who are pregnant should avoid contact with the area of skin where AndroGel has been applied.
      • If you already have an enlargement of your prostate gland, your signs and symptoms can get worse while using AndroGel (including changes in urination).
      • Possible increased risk of prostate cancer.
      • Blood clots in the legs or lungs. Signs and symptoms of a blood clot in your leg can include leg pain, swelling, or redness. Signs and symptoms of a blood clot in your lungs can include difficulty breathing or chest pain.
      • Possible increased risk of heart attack or stroke.
      • In large doses, AndroGel may lower your sperm count.
      • Swelling of your ankles, feet, or body, with or without heart failure. This may cause serious problems for people who have heart, kidney, or liver disease.
      • Enlarged or painful breasts.
      • Having problems breathing while you sleep (sleep apnea).

      Please see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNING, and Medication Guide for AndroGel 1% and please see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNING, and Medication Guide for AndroGel 1.62%.

      Please see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNING, and Medication Guide for AndroGel 1% and please see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNING, and Medication Guide for AndroGel 1.62%.

      You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

      The information contained herein is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace discussions with a healthcare provider. All decisions regarding patient care must be made by a healthcare provider considering the unique characteristics of the patient. This site is intended for US residents only. Use of and access to this site are subject to the Terms of Use and Privacy Statement.

      Reference: 1. AndroGel 1.62% [package insert]. ASCEND Therapeutics US, LLC, Morristown, NJ. 2022 2. AndroGel 1% [package insert]. ASCEND Therapeutics US, LLC, Morristown, NJ, 2022.

      USE AND IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

      USE 1,2

      AndroGel ® (testosterone gel) 1% and 1.62% are controlled substances, available by prescription, used to treat adult males who have low or no testosterone due to certain medical conditions.

      It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective to treat men who have low testosterone due to aging.

      It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective in children younger than 18 years old.

      AndroGel is a controlled substance (CIII) because it contains testosterone that can be a target for people who abuse prescription medicines. Keep it in a safe place to protect it and never give it to anyone else. Selling or giving away this medicine may harm others and is against the law.

      AndroGel is not meant for use in women.

      IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION 1,2

      USE AND IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION 1,2

      USE 1,2

      AndroGel ® (testosterone gel) 1% and 1.62% are controlled substances, available by prescription, used to treat adult males who have low or no testosterone due to certain medical conditions.

      It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective to treat men who have low testosterone due to aging.

      It is not known if AndroGel is safe or effective in children younger than 18 years old.

      AndroGel is a controlled substance (CIII) because it contains testosterone that can be a target for people who abuse prescription medicines. Keep it in a safe place to protect it and never give it to anyone else. Selling or giving away this medicine may harm others and is against the law.

      AndroGel is not meant for use in women.

      IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION 1,2

      • AndroGel can transfer from your body to others, including children and women. This can happen if other people come into contact with the area where the AndroGel was applied. Children and women should avoid contact with the unwashed or not covered (unclothed) areas where AndroGel has been applied to your skin.
      • Early signs and symptoms of puberty have occurred in young children who have come in direct contact with testosterone by touching areas where men have used AndroGel.
      • Signs and symptoms of early puberty in a child who has come in direct contact with AndroGel may include:
        • Abnormal sexual changes:
          • Enlarged penis or clitoris.
          • Early growth of hair near the vagina or around the penis (pubic hair).
          • Erections or acting out sexual urges (sex drive).
          • Changes in body hair.
          • An abnormal increase in pimples (acne).
          • Apply AndroGel 1.62% only to your shoulders and upper arms that will be covered by a short-sleeve t-shirt.
          • Apply AndroGel 1% only to areas of your shoulders, upper arms, or stomach area (abdomen) that will be covered by a short-sleeve t-shirt.
          • Wash your hands right away with soap and water after applying AndroGel.
          • After the gel has dried, cover the application area with clothing. Keep the area covered until you have washed the application area well or have showered.
          • If you expect to have skin-to-skin contact with another person, first wash the application area well with soap and water.
          • If a child or woman touches the area where you have applied AndroGel, that area on the child or woman should be washed well with soap and water right away.
          • Have breast cancer or have or might have prostate cancer.
          • Are pregnant. AndroGel may harm your unborn baby. Women who are pregnant should avoid contact with the area of skin where AndroGel has been applied.
          • If you already have an enlargement of your prostate gland, your signs and symptoms can get worse while using AndroGel (including changes in urination).
          • Possible increased risk of prostate cancer.
          • Blood clots in the legs or lungs. Signs and symptoms of a blood clot in your leg can include leg pain, swelling, or redness. Signs and symptoms of a blood clot in your lungs can include difficulty breathing or chest pain.
          • Possible increased risk of heart attack or stroke.
          • In large doses, AndroGel may lower your sperm count.
          • Swelling of your ankles, feet, or body, with or without heart failure. This may cause serious problems for people who have heart, kidney, or liver disease.
          • Enlarged or painful breasts.
          • Having problems breathing while you sleep (sleep apnea).

          Please see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNING, and Medication Guide for AndroGel 1% and please see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNING, and Medication Guide for AndroGel 1.62%.

          Please see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNING, and Medication Guide for AndroGel 1% and please see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNING, and Medication Guide for AndroGel 1.62%.

          You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

          The information contained herein is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace discussions with a healthcare provider. All decisions regarding patient care must be made by a healthcare provider considering the unique characteristics of the patient. This site is intended for US residents only. Use of and access to this site are subject to the Terms of Use and Privacy Statement.

          Important Safety Information
          for Patients

Testosterone shot

testosterone shot

4 Types of Injectable Testosterone

As men age their bodies are changing – their testosterone levels begin to dwindle, they experience muscle loss, mood swings, and a decrease in sex drive. What if there was a way to fix it? A way to reverse the effects of aging? When it comes to your health, there is almost no right or wrong way to do something if you want to achieve your ideal results. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), like testosterone replacement therapy, might be the answer you are seeking when it comes to your health. It is important to employ a skilled professional to help you determine the best treatment plan and pick out the best form of testosterone to maximize your health goals and the benefits to your quality of life. Below are four types of injectable testosterone replacement therapy. Talk to a health professional about which one is right for you.

1. Enanthate

Used for men who do not produce enough testosterone, enanthate is a type of injectable testosterone that is derivative of the primary endogenous androgen testosterone, for intramuscular administration. In their active form, androgens have a 17-beta-hydroxy group. “Testosterone enanthate is designated chemically as androst-4-en-3-one, 17-[(1-oxoheptyl)-oxy]-, (17β)-.” To maintain levels, injections should be administered every five days. A dose of approximately 100 to 200 mg, to start, of this form of testosterone is commonly administered via intramuscular injection (IM) every five to seven days. This should bring a patient within optimal ranges (800 ng to 1000 ng). Every patient is different, however. Baseline testosterone levels and other factors may influence initial dose and maintenance plan. It is important to note that this type of testosterone should never be injected into the vein and should be done by a medical doctor or under supervision of a medical professional.

2. Cypionate

This type of testosterone is an eight-carbon ester form of testosterone. Cypionate is considered a “long acting” testosterone, metabolized in approximately seven to eight days. Similar to enanthate, treatments involving cypionate usually start with a dose of approximately 100 mg to 200 mg, but only administered every seven days. The dosages vary with each patient and depends on your testosterone blood levels and your medical condition.

3. Propionate

This type of testosterone is a slow-releasing anabolic steroid with a short half-life of 4.5. allows users to run short Testosterone Propionate cycles in the range of 8 – 10 weeks, sometimes in as little as even 6 weeks. 2 This is due to the shorter time required for optimal blood plasma levels to be achieved because of the faster release. This testosterone ester can peak in the blood within hours of being administered and metabolized over three days. Injections should be administered every two to three days. You must weigh the “positives” with the “negatives” before using propionate. This is only prescribed in special cases, as it has to be administered frequently. However, it quickly stabilizes testosterone levels, but risks aromatization into estrogen, which can lead to negative side effects. Propionate requires frequent injections compared to other types of testosterone such as cypionate or enanthate.

4. Testosterone Suspension

This type of testosterone contains no ester and is known among bodybuilders as a “potent mass agent.” This water-based testosterone is said to be the most powerful injectable steroid available, producing very quick muscle mass and strength. 3 This form of testosterone requires frequent intramuscular injections, as it remains in the body a limited number of hours. To treat low testosterone, a dose of 25-50 mg is administered 2-3 times per week. The injection is often very painful, and experience has shown that the risks outweigh the benefits. This particular form does not come highly recommended.

More Information Regarding Types of Testosterone

Our medical team at the biostation can help you determine which of the four different types of injectable testosterone therapy is best for your health goals and lifestyle. the biostation even offers custom blends for maximum results. In some cases, utilizing multiple esters improves the body’s response, further enhancing outcomes.

the biostation offers comprehensive, individualized, and a holistic approach to total wellness and age management. By focusing on customized medicine, the biostation helps patients earlier in the aging process in order to help prevent, rather than treat age-related issues. Founded and run by Martin G. Bloom, M.D., a Cardiologist and Functional Medicine Expert with 40+ years of experience, the biostation is dedicated to helping patients identify the root causes of any issues in order to restore the body to its peak performance, alleviate symptoms and ultimately, reverse the effects of aging and prevent age-related diseases. the biostation creates personalized treatment plans with proven, effective and safe anti-aging solutions that include highly advanced testing, bioidentical hormone therapy, nutrient therapy, sexual health programs, medical aesthetics, weight loss and much more.